Taiwan speeds up the ongoing construction of indigenous Submarine.

Taiwan government swung into action to safeguard the disputed territory. According to a report by the South China Morning Post, the Taiwan government has started building an indigenous submarine prototype after tensions with Beijing increased significantly in the last six months. Notably, the report was published citing a source in the Taiwanese military. The source reportedly told the Chinese media outlet that the Taiwan government has recently ordered the manufacturer to speed up the construction process.

Further, the source revealed the naval forces would get the first batch of submarines a year before it was scheduled. The source said that the first and the most crucial phase of its construction was completed in November this year. According to Russian news agency Sputnik, the Taiwanese government had started building indigenous submarine manufacturing projects in 2016 with an aim to build eight new submarines. As of now, the country has four old submarines and eight new ones. Out of 12, two of Taiwan’s four submarines that date back to World War II are used primarily for training purposes.

Citing a report published by the Taiwan government, Sputnik reported that the estimated cost of the new submarine prototype is $1.7 billion. It said that the warship would be inducted on or before 2025. Currently, the construction of submarines is under process at a CSBC Corporation shipyard. The Taiwanese Navy held a keel-laying ceremony for the submarine prototype in mid-November this year. 

It is worth noting Taiwan– officially the Republic of China, is a country in East Asia that shares maritime boundaries with China. Earlier, it was a part of China but, during a civil war, it was divided and formed two self-governing entities– the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). Despite the split, China constitutionally considers Taiwan as its integral part under its One China Principle. According to a recent US report, it claimed Beijing would force the democratic Island to negotiate on its terms by 2027. The US Department of Defence released a report in the first week of November titled Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China” has warned the Taiwanese government to take “extra care of its territories.


View; The teerorists repented because they were desperate to escape death, not because the FG promised them anything.

It will be recalled that as a result of some unresolvable conflicts, some members of the dreaded Boko Haram terrorist group broke out of it to form a splinter faction known as the Islamic State for West African Province (ISWAP) in 2016. In the light of this, their disputes, rather than resolved, became intensified. And since the latter was enjoying the supports of the Asia-based Islamic State for Iraq and Syria (ISIS), it was able to have an upper hand over the former.

The above situation allegedly later led to the death of the long time leader of the Boko Haram group, Abubakar Shekau, and many of his followers in June. As a result, while some of the surviving ones were forced by the ISWAP insurgents to swear allegiance to them, the rest refused, and even vowed to revenge Shekau’s death. However, further reports had it that they have been enduring mistreatments at the hands of their conquerors.

Amid the unfavourable treatments that the Boko Haram terrorists were reportedly receiving from ISWAP, the federal troops were also heavily clamping down on them. With these two setbacks and other tormenting conditions in their Sambisa forest hideouts, about twenty thousand of them ended up surrendering to the federal government (FG).

Not minding the criticisms that the FG has been enduring from Nigerians for granting the repentant Boko Haram hoodlums after the unjustifiable destructions of innocent lives and property that they have orchestrated, it did not stop forgiving them. Not even in the few times that their angry ISWAP nemesis have tried to attack them in their camp.

Despite the following, some of the supposedly repentant terrorists, according to Sahara Reporters, have accused the same apex govermment that has been protecting them of failing to fulfill their promises to them; hence, they want to return to their old evil terrorist lifestyles!

As a reminder, it is on record that the FG had already reformed many other repentant Boko Haram converts before them. Thus, if it did not fail those ones, why should it disappoint them that they are now allegedly threatening to go back to their erstwhile colleagues who are still in the forest? It appears that they are now not only blackmailing the government, they are also threatening it!

To cap it all, it is a known fact that the teerorists repented because they were desperate to escape death, not because the FG promised them anything.


Dubai Criminal Court sentenced an African to 3 years in prison and fined himDhs5,000 over assaulting his roommate with a knife.

The Dubai Criminal Court sentenced an African to 3 years in prison and fined himDhs5,000 over assaulting his roommate with a knife due to a dispute between them.

The convict would be deported from the country after serving the term, the Court ordered. In the incident that dates back to January last year, two people in a shared accommodation in the Hor Al Anz, Dubai, had a dispute due.

One of them (African) stabbed another one with a knife and fled the scene. A police patrol and the ambulance moved to the location following a report stating a stabbing incident. 

The victim was taken to the hospital for treatment, while the security teams were able to identify the perpetrator and arrest him. The victim stated in the investigations that he has had a friendship with the convict for about a year, as he shared a room with him in a villa in the Hor AlAnz area.

The convict reportedly moved to another accommodation and left two bags for two month in the room he shared with the victim. The latter asked the convict many times to come to take his bags, but he was stalling and arguing that his room is small and does not fit his purposes.

The convict then had to go to the victim’s room to take the bags and asked the victim to help him transport his belongings, but a verbal altercation occurred between them. The victim slapped the convict in the face, so the convict rushed to the kitchen of the house, brought a knife, stabbed him and fled the place.


A Federal High Court, Abuja, on Monday, fixed February 21, 2022, for judgment in a suit seeking to challenge former Vice-President Atiku Abubakar’s eligibility.

Court Fixes Feb 21 For Judgment In Suit Challenging Atiku’s Eligibility To Contest Presidency

A Federal High Court, Abuja, on Monday, fixed February 21, 2022, for judgment in a suit seeking to challenge former Vice-President Atiku Abubakar’s eligibility to vie for the office of the president.

Justice Inyang Ekwo fixed the date after taking arguments from counsel to the parties in the suit.

The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that a group, an Incorporated Trustees of Egalitarian Mission for Africa (EMA), in a suit marked: FHC/ABJ/CS/177/2019 had sued Atiku, Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and Attorney General of the Federation (AGF) as 1st to 4th respondents respectively

The group asked the court to hold, among others, that considering the provisions of Sections 25(1) &(2) and 131(a) of the constitution and the circumstances surrounding the former vice president’s birth, he cannot contest for the top office.

NAN also reports that the Adamawa State Government, through its Attorney-General (AG), had, on July 27, sought an order of the court to be joined in the suit.

The court, in the motion dated April 26 and filed June 24, granted the prayer of the AG of Adamawa to be joined in the case as 5th defendant.

The Adamawa government had told the court that Atiku was eligible to vie for the office of the president.

It said Atiku, against whom the suit was primarily directed, is a citizen of Nigeria from Adamawa who had been elected as a governor of the state in 1999 and served as the vice president of the country between 1999 to 2007.

It stated that the suit threatened the right of not just the ex-vice president to contest the office of the president “but that of the citizens of Nigeria, of Adamawa origin covering 12 out of the 21 Local Government Areas in the state

When the matter was called on Monday, Counsel to the plaintiff, Akinola Oladimeji, informed that the matter was slated for hearing of his originating summons.

We have amended originating summons in response to 1st to 5th defendants counter affidavits, he said.

Eyitayo Jegede, SAN, who appeared for Atiku (1st defendant), said a notice of preliminary objection was filed.

Jegede, after withdrawing two motions earlier filed, one of which challenged the jurisdiction of court, urged the court to dismiss the plaintiff application.

He argued that a previous case relied upon by the applicant in filing the suit did not relate with the matter at hand.

The senior lawyer also argued that the matter was already stale as it was tied to 2019 election, in which his client vied for the election, challenged the poll and was unsuccessful.

He said this defined the futility of the plaintiff case.

Corroborating Jegede’s submission, counsel to the 2nd defendant (PDP), Adedamola Falokun, said hr also filed a notice of preliminary objection.
He described the matter as a preelection matter, urging the court not to waste its time on it.


FG said we’re in the era of vaccines and non-pharmeceutical intervention.

THE Federal Government has said that Nigeria is now in the era of vaccines and non-pharmaceutical intervention in tackling the COVID-19  pandemic and reemphasised the safety of vaccines administered to Nigerians.

The government also said it had enough COVID-19 vaccines to cover over 70 per cent of its population by December 2022.

Secretary to the Government of the Federation  and Chairman of the Presidential Steering Committee on COVID-19 Boss Mustapha said this on Monday in Abuja at the opening of a two-day national summit on the pandemic.

In his remarks at the event, Mustapha said  that the National COVID-19 Summit was aimed at bringing all stakeholders together to discuss the theme, ‘Pushing Through the Last Mile to End the Pandemic and Build Back Better.

We need to encourage all eligible persons to get vaccinated and keep observing the washing of hands, wearing of face masks, keep physical distance and avoid crowded areas. Nigeria has invested in enough vaccines that can cover over 70 per cent of our population before the end of 2022. These vaccines are safe and efficacious, hence it is better and safer to be vaccinated against this virus, now.

Mustapha noted that the event would create the opportunity to identify successes, gaps, and lessons learnt so far in Nigeria’s National Response to COVID-19 from March 2020 till date in the bid to develop strategies to actualize the international commitments towards ending COVID-19 before the end of Year 2022.

According to him, Nigeria’s COVID-19 response had been inspired by data, science, and experience since its inception.


More than 200,000 Nigerians are now refugees in Niger Republic, Says UNHCR.

At least 11,500 Nigerians were forced to flee to neighbouring Niger Republic last month due to terror attacks on their communities.

UNHCR spokesperson, Boris Cheshirkov, said at a press briefing last week that most of the refugees took shelter in 26 villages across Bangui, located in Niger’s Tahoua region which already received 3,500 Nigerian refugees since September.

The attacks that forced many to flee took place in Sokoto State, located in the northwest region where bandits have wreaked havoc over the past couple of years.

Women and children make up the majority of the recent arrivals and describe killings, kidnappings for ransom, and the looting of their villages, Cheshirkov said in Geneva.

More than 200,000 Nigerians are now refugees in Niger, a majority of them victims that fled the insurgency of Boko Haram in the northeast region.

The terrorist group has killed more than 30000 people and displaced over two million from their communities since 2009.

UNHCR raised alarm that many of those displaced are urgently in need of shelter, food, water, and healthcare.


What is Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS)?

 What is Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS)?

Post-Concussion Syndrome, or PCS, is the persistence of concussion symptoms beyond the normal course of recovery. The majority of concussion symptoms will resolve within about two weeks. In cases where symptoms last longer than one or two months, doctors may diagnose Post-Concussion Syndrome. Patients with PCS can experience concussion-like symptoms at rest or in response to too much physical or cognitive activity, often forcing them to withdraw from their usual physical, professional, and social lives.

Pathophysiology of Post-Concussion Syndrome

Debate in the literature exists over which symptoms of postconcussion syndrome are due to organic causes and which have a psychological basis. Researchers have hypothesized that early postconcussion syndrome symptoms are more likely to be organic, whereas PCS symptoms that persist beyond 3 months have a nonorganic, psychological basis. While recent research has shown that psychological factors may be present early, other studies using imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have demonstrated the presence of organic brain injury in patients with persistent PCS at greater than 1 year after injury.

Neuropsychological assessments have pointed toward an organic basis for some of the symptoms of postconcussion syndrome. Patients with PCS have been found to have cognitive deficits in memory, attention, and learning when compared with controls. A prospective study found impaired eye movements in patients with PCS, as compared to controls, that were both persistent and independent of factors such as depression or intellectual ability. Findings from neuropsychological evaluations demonstrate that symptom severity is not necessarily dependent on neurologic status immediately following injury. However, in other series, the length of LOC or posttraumatic amnesia may be correlated with the probability of developing PCS.

Some studies have found certain characteristics such as female sex, noise sensitivity, and anxiety predict development of symptoms. Another study found a simple test in the ED of immediate and delayed memory for 5 words and a VAS for acute headache provided an 80% sensitivity and 76% specificity for the development of PCS. In addition, another study found that higher educational levels, along with mild symptoms and no extracranial symptoms predicted a low likelihood of significant dysfunction from PCS.

What causes Post-Concussion Syndrome?

Concussions can occur in a variety of scenarios, including:

  • Following a fall
  • Being involved in car accident
  • Being violently assaulted
  • Experiencing a blow to the head during impact sports, particularly boxing and football

It isn’t known why some people develop PCS and others don’t.

The severity of the concussion or TBI plays no role in the likelihood of developing PCS.

Risk factors of Post-Concussion Syndrome

Risk factors for developing persistent post-concussive symptoms include:

  • Age – Studies have found increasing age to be a risk factor for persistent post-concussive symptoms.
  • Sex – Women are more likely to be diagnosed with persistent post-concussive symptoms, but this may be because women are generally more likely to seek medical care.
  • Cause of Injury – Victims of an auto accident, motorcycle accident, falls, and assaults are more likely to suffer from post-concussion syndrome than those who suffer from sports-related concussions.

Symptoms and complications

  • The symptoms of PCS can include: headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Increased sensitivity to light
  • Increased sensitivity to noise
  • Irritability
  • Changes in emotional state, such as becoming more susceptible to stress
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Memory problems
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Increased intolerance to alcohol
  • Change in appetite
  • Many of these symptoms overlap with those of other medical conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain.
  • The exact reason why some people develop post-concussion syndrome after a blow to the head is not clear. There seems to be no correlation with the severity of the head injury.

How is Post-Concussion Syndrome Diagnosed?

Diagnosis of PCS is typically done by reviewing the patient’s history, physical tests, manual neurological and visual testing, vestibular tests, and ruling out other possible conditions. Here are some details of the most common post-concussion syndrome assessments.

Patient History

  • How did the concussion occur?
  • When did the symptoms start and how have they changed since then?
  • If there was a loss of consciousness, for how long?
  • Engage in a Dark Room Protocol or did you continue with all of your usual activities?
  • Prior concussions and details?
  • Other medical issues?
  • What tests/exams have been conducted so far?
  • What treatments have you tried or are currently undergoing?

Central Neurological Exam

  • Tests for Cerebellar brain function
  • Tests for Upper Motor Neuron function
  • Cranial Nerve tests

Oculomotor Vision Tests

  • Smooth Pursuit
  • Saccades
  • Convergence and Divergence

Orthopaedic / Physical Exam

  • Cervical spine (neck) assessment
  • Range of motion
  • Strength
  • Joint stability
  • Treadmill cardiovascular stress testing
  • Heart rate / blood pressure tests

Vestibular Tests

  • Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR) tests
  • Positional tests for BPPV
  • Gait and Balance Assessments
  • Infrared Goggle Nystagmus Tests

Nystagmus refers to the reflexive eye movements that occur with head movement and position changes. Abnormal nystagmus can be a sign of a vestibular impairment (the head movement sensing system), cerebellar and brain stem problems, and vision processing disorders. Nystagmus appears as repetitive flicking or beating movements of the eye (up, down, sideways and rotational).

Infrared google tests assess these patterns of eye movements to determine which areas of the brain may not be functioning properly.


The Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool is the most commonly administered test for sports related concussion. However this is a screening test rather than a true diagnostic test and it’s designed to be used for sports injuries and immediately following a concussion. Its usefulness as a concussion test decreases as time passes, losing effectiveness in as little as 3 days. It is NOT typically used for diagnosing Post-Concussion Syndrome.


Though uncommon, a small number of patients may have serious structural injuries to their neck (cervical spine) with a concussion. Those with significant neck pain, substantial loss of range of motion, or specific neurological signs may benefit from an X-ray.

MRI or CT Scans

The majority of MRIs and CT scans are negative for those with post-concussion syndrome. In those uncommon cases where head scans show changes in structure or scarring related to a brain injury, this information rarely helps to guide treatment. This is due to the individual differences between patients, and the unique brain stimulation that each person is exposed to each day. However, research in this area is moving quickly and there is strong potential for brain scans to be helpful in the assessment and treatment of PCS in the future.

When is an MRI / CT scan useful?

  • They have little value when symptoms are relatively stable
  • Are important if symptoms are rapidly increasing in the initial 3 days of concussion injury. Some worsening signs include: trouble speaking, difficulty coordinating movements of hands, fingers, feet, legs, unbearable headache, persistent vomiting, and vision loss.
  • If severe symptoms persist well into weeks and months, to rule out a chronic subdermal hematoma (slow brain bleed).

What is the treatment for Post-Concussion Syndrome?

For most people, the symptoms of post-concussion syndrome usually improve and go away within three months after the initial blow to the head. Many find that having a diagnosis and an explanation for their symptoms helps.

There is no specific treatment that seems to speed up recovery. Any treatment that is given is aimed at relieving specific symptoms.

There are some things that you may find helpful if you have been diagnosed with post-concussion syndrome:

  • Don’t rush back into things – it is generally advised that anyone who has had a head injury should take things slowly. If possible, try to return to your usual activities gradually after a head injury.
  • Sleep hygiene – if you are having problems sleeping and are feeling very tired, try to stick to a regular schedule.
  • Medication to help symptoms – your doctor may suggest some medication to help some of the symptoms of post-concussion syndrome that you may have. For example, painkillers for headache, medication to help with nausea symptoms or an antidepressant if you have symptoms of depression.
  • Keep your stress levels down.
  • Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs.

If your symptoms are prolonged or particularly troublesome, your doctor may suggest referral to a specialist used to dealing with problems related to head injury. This may be a neurologist, who specialises in problems of the nervous system, or a neuropsychiatrist or neuropsychologist, who specialises in problems relating to the brain and mental health, or a rehabilitation medicine specialist.

Prevention of Post-Concussion Syndrome

The only known way to prevent the development of persistent post-concussive symptoms is to avoid the head injury in the first place.

Avoiding head injuries

Although you can’t prepare for every potential situation, here are some tips for avoiding common causes of head injuries:

  • Fasten your seat belt whenever you’re traveling in a car, and be sure children are in age-appropriate safety seats. Children under 13 are safest riding in the back seat, especially if your car has air bags.
  • Use helmets whenever you or your children are bicycling, roller-skating, in-line skating, ice-skating, skiing, snowboarding, playing football, batting or running the bases in softball or baseball, skateboarding, or horseback riding. Wear a helmet when riding a motorcycle.
  • Take action at home to prevent falls, such as removing small area rugs, improving lighting and installing handrails.


Somatic symptom disorder is diagnosed when a person has a significant focus on physical symptoms.


Somatic symptom disorder is diagnosed when a person has a significant focus on physical symptoms, such as pain, weakness or shortness of breath, to a level that results in major distress and/or problems functioning. The individual has excessive thoughts, feelings and behaviors relating to the physical symptoms. The physical symptoms may or may not be associated with a diagnosed medical condition, but the person is experiencing symptoms and believes they are sick (that is, not faking the illness).

A person is not diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder solely because a medical cause can’t be identified for a physical symptom. The emphasis is on the extent to which the thoughts, feelings and behaviors related to the illness are excessive or out of proportion.


The prevalence of somatic symptom disorder in the general population is an estimated 5% to 7%, making this one of the most common categories of patient concerns in the primary care setting. An estimated 20% to 25% of patients who present with acute somatic symptoms go on to develop a chronic somatic illness. These disorders can begin in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Females tend to present with somatic symptom disorder more often than males, with an estimated female-to-male ratio of 10:1.

Types of Somatic symptom disorder

Different somatoform disorders are distinguished by thoughts, emotions and actions related to somatic symptoms. There are seven types of somatoform disorders where individuals present with a multitude of clinically significant symptoms that cannot be explained, including:

Somatization Disorder

Somatization disorder occurs when a person continually complains of physical symptoms when there is no physical condition present to cause the symptoms. A somatization disorder diagnosis requires that a person must experience inexplicable physical symptoms that start before age 30, have symptoms that persist for several years and involve pain, stomach complaints, sexual issues and neurological problems.

Conversion Disorder

Conversion disorder occurs when physical symptoms mimic symptoms of a neurological disorder even though no neurological disorder is present. Symptoms may include paralysis, vision or hearing loss, or seizures.  A conversion disorder is generally the result of trauma and impacts a person’s senses and movement.

Pain Disorder

Somatoform pain disorder is characterized by recurring pain in one or more parts of the body with no known cause. A pain disorder diagnosis is given when pain cannot be accounted for by a medical or other disorder, when pain causes considerable distress and when psychological factors play a significant role in the onset, magnitude and duration of the pain.


Hypochondriasis occurs when a person believes that normal bodily signs or minor symptoms are evidence of a severe illness, even when medical tests and assessments prove otherwise. Physical symptoms may either be real or imagined. Hypochondriasis was removed from the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and replaced with somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder.

Other Specified Somatic Symptom and Related Disorder

Somatoform disorder not otherwise specified is a diagnosis used for symptoms that meet many — but not all of the required criteria for a somatoform disorder diagnosis. Presentations that may be specified using this designation include:

  • Brief somatic symptoms disorder
  • Brief illness anxiety disorder
  • Illness anxiety disorder without excessive health-related behaviors

Unspecified Somatic Symptom and Related Disorder

Like the specific somatic symptom and related disorders diagnosis, undifferentiated somatoform disorder applies to individuals who have symptoms characteristic of somatic disorders that do not meet full criteria for any somatoform disorder. However, the unspecified somatic symptom and related disorder diagnosis should only be given in unusual situations, or in situations where there is insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis.

Somatic symptom disorder risk factors

Risk factors for somatic symptom disorder include:

  • Having anxiety or depression
  • Having a medical condition or recovering from one
  • Being at risk of developing a medical condition, such as having a strong family history of a disease
  • Experiencing stressful life events, trauma or violence
  • Having experienced past trauma, such as childhood sexual abuse
  • Having a lower level of education and socio-economic status

Causes of Somatic symptom disorder

There are many theories about why somatization occurs. These theories involve:

Biological Sensitivity: A person may have a heightened sensitivity to certain sensations, such as pain or nausea. They may be more likely to attribute these sensations to illness. A person may also misinterpret psychological symptoms, such as anxious sweating, to a physical cause.

Trauma/Stress: Research shows survivors of trauma are particularly susceptible to somatization. Trauma can lead to high levels of cortisol and other hormones. These chemicals can weaken one’s immune system and cause physical symptoms such as dizziness.

The Unconscious: Somatization could be a defense mechanism, protecting the person from emotional overwhelm. Some psychological symptoms may be so overwhelming that a person cannot face them consciously. A person’s distress may then find an outlet through the body, converting to a physical symptom.

Cultural Attitudes: Some people may live in a culture that stigmatizes emotional distress. A person may receive more attention and sympathy when they present physical symptoms than when they report psychological issues. A person’s mind and body may “learn” to somaticize distress in order to get help.

Somatization may be caused by multiple factors. It could also have no perceivable cause. Regardless of why the somatization occurs, the symptoms are real and do cause distress. People experiencing somatization can get treatment by finding a therapist.


The main symptom of somatic symptom disorder is the belief that you have a medical condition, which you may not actually have. These conditions range from mild to severe and general to very specific. Additional characteristics include:

  • Symptoms that aren’t related to any known medical condition
  • Symptoms that are related to a known medical condition, but are much more extreme than they should be
  • Constant or intense anxiety about a possible illness
  • Thinking that normal physical sensations are signs of illness
  • Worrying about the severity of mild symptoms, such as a runny nose
  • Believing your doctor hasn’t given you a proper examination or treatment
  • Worrying that physical activity will harm your body
  • Repeatedly examining your body for any physical signs of illness
  • Not responding to medical treatment or being very sensitive to medication side effects
  • Experiencing a disability more severe than what’s generally associated with a condition

Somatic symptom disorder complications

Somatic symptom disorder can be associated with:

  • Poor health
  • Problems functioning in daily life, including physical disability
  • Relationship problem
  • Problems at work or unemployment
  • Other mental health disorders, such as anxiety, depression and personality disorders
  • Increased suicide risk related to depression
  • Financial problems due to excessive health care visits

Diagnosis and test

There is no somatic symptom disorder test to specifically diagnose the condition. A doctor will likely discuss your symptoms and perform a routine physical exam. Doctors typically develop a diagnosis based on how much a patient’s obsession on symptoms disrupts their daily life and mental well-being.

A doctor might consider the following criteria when considering a diagnosis:

  • Constant focus on the seriousness of the symptoms
  • Excessive magnification of the severity of symptoms
  • Long-term distress over personal health or symptoms
  • Extreme amount of time and energy spent on concern over health and wellbeing

Additionally, your doctor may perform diagnostic tests for other medical conditions that might relate to your symptoms.

Possible conditions your doctor might explore:

  • Fibromyalgia
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Lupus
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Treatment and medications

Treatment is quite challenging and difficult because patients with somatic symptom and related disorders typically are unwilling to admit that their symptoms are due to mental (psychological factor). They get angry with their doctors who are unable to find the cause of their complaints.

The first time the diagnosis is discussed (after the initial investigations have failed to show any definitive cause) is a key moment in the doctor patient relationship. It is important to describe the condition to the patient in a manner without reference to a psychosomatic illness.

The goal of therapy is to alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life and to resume the daily routine. The forms of treatment offered include psychotherapy and medication if applicable.


If the patient understands that his/her physical symptoms might be related to psychological distress and a high level of anxiety, then psychotherapy, also called talk treatment can help to improve physical symptoms.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

  • Teaches how to reduce stress and cope with distressing physical symptoms. It reduces one’s preoccupation with symptoms.
  • Teaches how to manage situations or activities that cause uncomfortable physical sensations. It changes ones negative thought processes and beliefs and improves the personality.
  • Addresses anxiety, depression and other mental issues associated with the somatic symptom disorder.

Thus it improved daily functioning at home, workplace, interpersonal relationship,s and in social situations. The family may also be counselled so that the patient gets better support.


Medications do not play a significant role unless there is associated underlying anxiety or depression which may be treated with anxiolytics or antidepressants, respectively. Some specific conditions such as pain disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are treated with antidepressant drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

It may take several weeks for the medications to show any visible effect and the doctor or patient should not set unrealistic goals such as a cure.

A supportive relationship with an understanding health professional is the most important aspect of treatment.

Regular follow-ups are essential to review symptoms and the persons coping mechanisms.

Somatic symptom disorder prevention

Little is known about how to prevent somatic symptom disorder. However, these recommendations may help.

  • If you have problems with anxiety or depression, seek professional help as soon as possible.
  • Learn to recognize when you’re stressed and how this affects your body and regularly practice stress management and relaxation techniques.
  • If you think you have somatic symptom disorder, get treatment early to help stop symptoms from getting worse and impairing your quality of life.
  • Stick with your treatment plan to help prevent relapses or worsening of symptoms.


The loss of learning that many children are experiencing is morally unacceptable. UN.

Lengthy pandemic school closures have cost students trillions of dollars in lifetime earnings, the World Bank and UN agencies said on Monday, warning that the crisis has worsened since last year.

The Washington-based development lender, along with UNICEF and UNESCO, in a report said the current generation of students risk losing $17 trillion in lifetime earnings, amounting to about 14 per cent of global GDP, due to classroom disruptions caused by Covid-19.

That was higher than a previous estimate made last year of a $10 trillion hit to students worldwide from the pandemic.

The COVID-19 crisis brought education systems across the world to a halt. Now, 21 months later, schools remain closed for millions of children, and others may never return to school,” said Jaime Saavedra, the World Bank’s Global Director for Education.

The loss of learning that many children are experiencing is morally unacceptable.

The disruptions are not being felt equally, with the study finding that poorer and disabled children have less access to remote learning, while younger students were overall more affected.

Girls had both less ability to shift to remote learning and more education loss overall, the report added.

While governments worldwide have unveiled stimulus measures to bolster their economies against the pandemic’s disruptions, less than three percent of these funds have gone to education, and more than 200 million students live in countries that don’t have the means to offer all lessons remotely.