Atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a combination of heart problems resulting in a defect in the center of the heart.


Atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a combination of heart problems resulting in a defect in the center of the heart. The condition occurs when there’s a hole between the heart’s chambers and problems with the valves that regulate blood flow in the heart.

Sometimes called endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal defect is present at birth (congenital). The condition is often associated with Down syndrome.

Atrioventricular canal defect allows extra blood to flow to the lungs. The extra blood forces the heart to overwork, causing the heart muscle to enlarge.

Untreated, atrioventricular canal defect can cause heart failure and high blood pressure in the lungs. Doctors generally recommend surgery during the first year of life to close the hole in the heart and to reconstruct the valves.

Types of atrioventricular canal defect

There are two general types of AVCD that can occur, depending on which structures are not formed correctly:

Complete AVCD

A complete AVCD occurs when there is a large hole in the center of the heart which allows blood to flow between all four chambers of the heart. This hole occurs where the septa (walls) separating the two top chambers (atria) and two bottom chambers (ventricles) normally meet. There is also one common atrioventricular valve in the center of the heart instead of two separate valves – the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the mitral valve on the left side of the heart. This common valve often has leaflets (flaps) that may not be formed correctly or do not close tightly. A complete AVCD arises during pregnancy when the common valve fails to separate into the two distinct valves (tricuspid and mitral valves) and when the septa (walls) that split the upper and lower chambers of the heart do not grow all the way to meet in the center of the heart.

Partial or Incomplete AVCD

A partial or incomplete AVCD occurs when the heart has some, but not all of the defects of a complete AVCD. There is usually a hole in the atrial wall or in the ventricular wall near the center of the heart. A partial AVCD usually has both mitral and tricuspid valves, but one of the valves (usually mitral) may not close completely, allowing blood to leak backward from the left ventricle into the left atrium.


Atrioventricular canal defect occurs before birth when a baby’s heart is developing. Some factors, such as Down syndrome, might increase the risk of atrioventricular canal defect. But the cause is generally unknown.

The normal-functioning heart

The heart is divided into four chambers, two on the right and two on the left.

The right side of your heart moves blood into vessels that lead to the lungs. There, oxygen enriches the blood. The oxygen-rich blood flows back to your heart’s left side and is pumped into a large vessel (aorta) that circulates blood to the rest of your body.

Valves control the flow of blood into and out of the chambers of your heart. These valves open to allow blood to move to the next chamber or to one of the arteries, and close to keep blood from flowing backward.

What happens in atrioventricular canal defect?

In partial atrioventricular canal defect:

  • There’s a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
  • Often the valve between the upper and lower left chambers (mitral valve) also has a defect that causes it to leak (mitral valve regurgitation).

In complete atrioventricular canal defect:

  • There’s a large hole in the center of the heart where the walls between the atria and the lower chambers (ventricles) meet. Oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood mix through that hole.
  • Instead of separate valves on the right and left, there’s one large valve between the upper and lower chambers.
  • The abnormal valve leaks blood into the ventricles.
  • The heart is forced to work harder and enlarges.

Risk factors of atrioventricular canal defect

Factors that might increase a baby’s risk of developing atrioventricular canal defect before birth include:

  • Down syndrome
  • German measles (rubella) or another viral illness during a mother’s early pregnancy
  • Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  • Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy
  • Smoking during pregnancy
  • Certain medications taken during pregnancy — talk to your doctor before taking any drugs while you’re pregnant or trying to become pregnant
  • Having a parent who had a congenital heart defect

What are the signs and symptoms?

The size of the openings will affect the type and severity of symptoms, as well as the age at which they first occur. The larger the openings, the more serious the condition.

If your baby has complete AVSD, the signs and symptoms usually become clear in the first few weeks of life. Symptoms vary for each child, but commonly include:

  • Difficult or congested breathing
  • Poor appetite or poor weight gain
  • Lack of interest or unusual tiredness during feeding
  • Cyanosis: A blue tone to the skin, lips, or nails
  • Pale, cool or sweaty skin
  • A heartbeat that is too fast

Complete AVSD may lead to congestive heart failure. If your baby develops congestive heart failure, the signs and symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue, weakness, and lack of alertness
  • Sudden weight gain or swelling of the legs, ankles, feet or belly
  • A heartbeat that is irregular or too fast
  • Coughing or wheezing that doesn’t go away, sometimes with white or pink phlegm that has blood in it

If your child has partial AVSD, signs and symptoms may not become clear for weeks, months, or even years. Some people with partial AVSD don’t show signs until they are adults in their 20s or 30s, whey they may develop conditions such as abnormal heart rhythm, congestive heart failure and high blood pressure in the lungs.

Your baby’s doctor may also suspect partial AVSD if he or she hears a heart murmur — an abnormal whooshing noise, heard through a stethoscope exam, which may indicate a problem with blood flow. Most heart murmurs are called “innocent heart murmurs.” Children with innocent heart murmurs do not have a heart defect and do not experience heart problems. However, if a heart murmur is present along with other symptoms, your doctor may want to investigate further by ordering other tests.

Complications of AVCD or AVSD

AVSD may have trouble breathing and they may not grow normally. Left untreated, the potential complications of AVSD also include:

  • Pneumonia: Untreated AVSD may lead to repeated problems with this lung infection.
  • Enlargement of the heart (cardiomegaly): Increased blood flow through the heart forces it to work harder, which causes it to grow larger.
  • Congestive heart failure: Left untreated, AVSD causes congestive heart failure, a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
  • High blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension): When the heart weakens and can’t pump enough blood, this increases blood pressure in the heart and lungs. High blood pressure in the blood vessels in the lungs can cause lung damage.
  • Bacterial endocarditis: A serious infection of the lining of the heart.

How is an atrioventricular canal defect diagnosed?

Front view cross section of heart showing atria on top and ventricles on bottom. Mitral and tricuspid valves are rebuilt. Patch is in ASD and another patch in VSD.

During a physical exam, the healthcare provider checks for signs of a heart problem such as a heart murmur. This is an extra noise caused when blood doesn’t flow smoothly through the heart. If a heart problem is suspected, your child may be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. This is a doctor with special training to diagnose and treat heart problems in children. To check for an AV canal defect, the following tests may be done:

  • Chest X-ray. X-rays are used to take a picture of the heart and lungs.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). The test records the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Echocardiogram (echo). Sound waves (ultrasound) are used to create a picture of the heart and look for structural defects.
  • Cardiac catheterization: a thin tube is inserted into the heart through a vein and/or artery in either the leg or through the umbilicus (“belly button”).
  • Pulse oximetry: a noninvasive way to monitor the oxygen content of the blood.
  • Cardiac MRI. This test gives 3-D images of the heart. It can show any defects.

How is an atrioventricular canal defect treated?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. All children with an AVCD will need to have surgery to fix it. They may also need other treatments.


Many children will need medicine to help their heart and lungs work better, such as:

  • This medicine helps the heart pump better.
  • This medicine helps the kidneys remove extra fluid from the body.
  • ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. These medicines make it easier for the heart to pump blood to the body.


Babies may become tired when feeding. This may stop them from eating enough to gain weight. Your child may need:

  • High-calorie formula or breastmilk. Your child may need special nutritional supplements added to his or her formula or pumped breastmilk.
  • Supplemental tube feedings. Your child may need to be fed through a tube. This small, flexible tube passes through the nose, down into the esophagus, and into the stomach. Your child may have tube feedings in addition to or instead of formula or breastmilk.

Infection control

Children with heart problems are at risk for infections of the lining of the heart and heart valves (bacterial endocarditis). Make sure that you tell all of your child’s healthcare providers that your child has an AV canal defect. Your child may need to take antibiotics before medical tests or procedures to prevent infections.


Your child will need surgery to repair the septal openings and heart valves. This is done to stop his or her lungs from becoming damaged further. Your child’s heart doctor will decide when the best time for surgery is. After the surgery, your child’s heart doctor may give him or her antibiotics. This is to prevent infections after he or she leaves the hospital.

Most children have surgery by the age of 6 months. Children with Down syndrome may develop lung problems earlier, and may need to have surgery at a younger age.

Support Care

Babies with AVSD may have slower growth and harder time eating. A high calorie diet may be recommended. These babies also have a higher risk of severe infections. Respiratory or lung infections will be treated very carefully.

Some will need to have activity limits as they get older. This is more common if valves can not be fully repaired and blood flow is still mixed.

Long Term Care

Your baby will be watched throughout their life. Problems can happen as they get older. Watching them on a regular basis will let their doctor treat problems as they come up. This may involve:

  • A yearly exam with a heart specialist
  • Regular tests of heart function
  • Changes to treatment plan

Prevention of atrioventricular canal defect

There is no way to prevent AVCD since the cause is unknown. Heredity may play a role in some heart defects. If you have a family history of heart defects or if you already have a child with a congenital heart defect, talk with a genetic counselor and a cardiologist before getting pregnant again.

Immunization with rubella vaccine has been one of the most effective preventive strategies against congenital heart defects.

Metrorrhagia, also referred to as abnormal uterine bleeding, refers to vaginal bleeding among women that is not in sync with their normal menstrual period.

Metrorrhagia Overview

Metrorrhagia, also referred to as abnormal uterine bleeding, refers to vaginal bleeding among women that is not in sync with their normal menstrual period.  An example of metrorrhagia can be seen when a woman experiences a heavier, prolonged period of bleeding more often than the normal menstrual duration of 21 days, or farther apart than 35. The condition can normally be related to a hormonal imbalance and typically can be found among pre-menopausal women.  Hormone treatment using estrogen, the progestin pill, use of the levonorgestrel IUD or a daily birth control pill typically helps to relieve the symptoms of metrorrhagia. In rare cases, a hysterectomy might be needed when other treatments do not work.

Pathophysiology of Metrorrhagia

The normal menstrual cycle is 28 days and starts on the first day of menses. During the first 14 days (follicular phase) of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens under the influence of estrogen. In response to rising estrogen levels, the pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulate the release of an ovum at the midpoint of the cycle. The residual follicular capsule forms the corpus luteum.

After ovulation, the luteal phase begins and is characterized by production of progesterone from the corpus luteum. Progesterone matures the lining of the uterus and makes it more receptive to implantation. If implantation does not occur, in the absence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the corpus luteum dies, accompanied by sharp drops in progesterone and estrogen levels. Hormone withdrawal causes vasoconstriction in the spiral arterioles of the endometrium. This leads to menses, which occurs approximately 14 days after ovulation when the ischemic endometrial lining becomes necrotic and sloughs.

Terms frequently used to describe abnormal uterine bleeding:

  • Menorrhagia – Prolonged (>7 d) or excessive (>80 mL daily) uterine bleeding occurring at regular intervals
  • Metrorrhagia – Uterine bleeding occurring at irregular and more frequent than normal intervals
  • Menometrorrhagia – Prolonged or excessive uterine bleeding occurring at irregular and more frequent than normal intervals
  • Intermenstrual bleeding – Uterine bleeding of variable amounts occurring between regular menstrual periods
  • Midcycle spotting – Spotting occurring just before ovulation, typically from declining estrogen levels
  • Postmenopausal bleeding – Recurrence of bleeding in a menopausal woman at least 6 months to 1 year after cessation of cycles
  • Amenorrhea – No uterine bleeding for 6 months or longer

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is ovulatory or anovulatory bleeding, diagnosed after pregnancy, medications, iatrogenic causes, genital tract pathology, malignancy, and systemic disease have been ruled out by appropriate investigations. Approximately 90% of dysfunctional uterine bleeding cases result from anovulation, and 10% of cases occur with ovulatory cycles.

Anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding results from a disturbance of the normal hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and is particularly common at the extremes of the reproductive years. When ovulation does not occur, no progesterone is produced to stabilize the endometrium; thus, proliferative endometrium persists. Bleeding episodes become irregular, and amenorrhea, metrorrhagia, and menometrorrhagia are common. Bleeding from anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding is thought to result from changes in prostaglandin concentration, increased endometrial responsiveness to vasodilating prostaglandins, and changes in endometrial vascular structure.

In ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding, bleeding occurs cyclically, and menorrhagia is thought to originate from defects in the control mechanisms of menstruation. It is thought that, in women with ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding, there is an increased rate of blood loss resulting from vasodilatation of the vessels supplying the endometrium due to decreased vascular tone, and prostaglandins have been strongly implicated. Therefore, these women lose blood at rates about 3 times faster than women with normal menses.

Causes of metrorrhagia

There are many reasons why women may have metrorrhagia. They include:

  • Hormone imbalance (the imbalance is sometimes caused by improper use of hormone medicine, such as birth control pills)
  • Polyps, which are growths on the cervix (the opening of the uterus) or inside the uterus; polyps are usually noncancerous.
  • Fibroids, which are noncancerous growths in the uterus
  • Infection or inflammation of the uterus, cervix, or vagina
  • Erosion of the cervix (loss of the surface skin of the cervix)
  • Use of an IUD (intrauterine device) or birth control pills
  • Endometriosis (uterine tissue growing outside the uterus)
  • Adhesions (scar tissue) inside the uterus
  • Dry vaginal walls from decreased estrogen after menopause
  • Chronic medical problems (for example, thyroid problems, diabetes, and blood-clotting problems)
  • Some medications, such as blood thinners
  • Stress
  • Cancer of the cervix or other parts of the uterus and vagina

Risk factors

The following factors may contribute to the occurrence of metrorrhagia:

  • Excessive physical activity
  • Drug and alcohol abuse
  • Anorexia and bulimia
  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid problems
  • Females that have begun menstruating can experience metrorrhagia.
  • It is especially concerning for post-menopausal women because the risk of malignancy increases with age.

Vaginal bleeding is common in the first three months of taking oral contraceptives. Estrogen and progestin are the oral contraceptives that can cause bleeding. Sometimes, the risk is also increased due to progesterone, but the situation can be improved by the addition of estrogen.


  • Soaking through one or more sanitary pads or tampons every hour for several consecutive hours
  • Needing to use double sanitary protection to control your menstrual flow
  • Needing to wake up to change sanitary protection during the night
  • Bleeding for longer than a week
  • Loss of libido
  • Hot flashes
  • Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
  • Pelvic pain
  • Painful urination
  • Smelly vaginal discharge
  • Acne
  • Fatigue

Complications of Metrorrhagia

In most cases, occasional light bleeding between periods does not carry major health risks, besides being inconvenient. However, frequent, consistently heavy spotting or bleeding between periods can have negative consequences on a woman’s health.

Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia may be triggered by significant blood loss on a monthly basis as well as poor nutrition, which is one of the causes of bleeding between periods. It is said to affect up to 20% of women of reproductive age and has been linked to infertility, depression, heart problems, and other complications.5

Other Complications

Another complication of metrorrhagia that is not properly treated is the progression of the condition that causes it.  While most conditions can have detrimental effects on a woman’s well-being and daily functioning, leaving some without treatment can be life-threatening. This includes PID, certain STDs, coagulation disorders, or cancers.

Diagnosis of Metrorrhagia

Your healthcare provider will ask about your medical history and menstrual cycles.  Your provider may ask you to keep a diary of bleeding and non-bleeding days, including notes about how heavy the bleeding was.  You may also have a physical exam.

Sometimes, a blood test or procedure are necessary, these include:

Endometrial biopsy: Your physician takes a sample of tissue from the inside of the uterus.  The tissue is then examined under a microscope.

Ultrasound scan: Sound waves are used to get pictures of the uterus, ovaries, and pelvis.  The ultrasound probe may be placed on your lower abdomen or into your vagina.

Hysteroscopy: Your physician inserts a thin metal tube with a tiny camera through the vagina and cervix and into the uterus.  This allows your provider to see the inside of the uterus.

Sonohysterogram: An ultrasound scan done after fluid is injected through a tube into your uterus.  This test allows your provider to look for problems with the lining of the uterus, such as fibroids.

Some of these procedures may be done in your healthcare provider’s office.  Others may be done in an outpatient clinic.

Metrorrhagia Treatment

Check first that the source of bleeding is not from the urine or rectum, but from the vagina. This can be confirmed with the help of a tampon.

  • A bed rest is a must in case of heavy bleeding. Don’t forget to take note of the number of tampons or pads you have used.
  • Avoid taking aspirin. Excessive vaginal bleeding may be caused by aspirin intake.
  • Hormonal treatment may be needed in case of hormonal imbalances.
  • Antibiotics are required for bacterial infection.
  • Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) may be required in some cases.

Once the root cause of metrorrhagia is identified, the next main focus is its treatment. The basic goal of any treatment is to provide comfort and cure to the affected person. Treatment may include the following:

  • Hospitalization – When bleeding progresses to hemorrhage or becomes uncontrolled, the doctor will recommend hospitalization to monitor and observe the patient along with carrying out diagnostic tests.
  • Oral Contraceptives – These can help in providing a regular menstrual cycle. They can help maintain women’s hormonal levels.
  • Dilation and Curettage  The doctor performs this procedure when the cause of bleeding is an incomplete abortion. The components left behind in the body can harm the mother, so they are removed through D&C.
  • Iron Supplements – Women who suffered severe blood loss should be given iron supplements.
  • Estrogen-Gestagen Therapy – For 10 days, estrogen-gestagen therapy may be given to treat hormonal problems. When estrogen levels are corrected, menstrual cycles are corrected as well.
  • Hysteroscopy – For polyp removal.
  • Hysterectomy – For the removal of the uterus.
  • Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy – If cancer is detected, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments is done.

As such, metrorrhagia treatment can encompass a variety of approaches, from optimizing one’s lifestyle practices and using alternative medicine to relying on pharmacological options.

Lifestyle Changes

  • A nutritious diet rich in iron and phytoestrogenic foods – like lentils or soy – can help women regulate their cycles and maintain a healthy weight, which is essential to menstrual health.
  • Regular exercise that focuses on losing excess weight and strengthening the body can restore period regularity and improve overall health.
  • Stress-relief techniques can help reduce the negative effects of accumulated cortisol on menstrual health and their role in causing intermenstrual bleeding.

Alternative Medicine

  • Nutritional supplements, like iron, might be necessary for those whose spotting between periods put them at risk of developing anemia.
  • Phytoestrogenic supplements, like chaste berry, can be used short-term to supply the body with plant-based estrogenic compounds that work to promote hormonal balance.
  • Hormone-regulating supplements, like Macafem Healthy Periods, can be safely used long-term to stimulate the endocrine glands from within toward optimal hormone production.


  • It is help is helpful to keep a record of your menstrual periods.
  • You should note any changes in your menstrual pattern, including abnormal bleeding, and bring your records to your doctor’s appointment.
  • Females over the age of 18 or who are sexually active should receive annual Pap smear tests and pelvic examinations.

Government of Netherland has said it will embark on strict lockdown this festive period due to the Omicron Variant.

The government of Netherlands has announced it plan to go into a strict lockdown over the Christmas and New Year period to try to contain the highly- contagious Omicron coronavirus variant, Prime Minister Mark Rutte said on Saturday (Dec 18).

All non-essential shops and services, including restaurants, hairdressers, museums and gyms will be closed from Sunday until Jan 14. All schools will be shut until at least Jan 9.

The Netherlands is again shutting down. That is unavoidable because of the fifth wave that is coming at us with the Omicron variant,” Rutte told a televised news conference.

Other measures include a recommendation that households receive no more than two visitors and that gatherings outside are also limited to a maximum of two people.

A failure to act now would likely lead to “an unmanageable situation in hospitals”, which have already scaled back regular care to make space for COVID-19 patients, Rutte said.

Infections in the Netherlands have dropped from record levels in recent weeks after the introduction of a nighttime lockdown late last month. The Omicron variant arrived as the country was already battling a wave in coronavirus infections.

Cases of the variant have surged since it was first found in the Netherlands three weeks ago, while hospitals are struggling with the large numbers of COVID-19 patients in their wards, near the highest levels this year.

Omicron is expected to become the most dominant variant of the virus in the Netherlands between Christmas and New Year’s Eve, leading Dutch infectious disease expert Jaap van Dissel said.

While more than 85 per cent of the Dutch adult population is vaccinated, fewer than 9per cent of adults have had a booster shot, one of the lowest rates in Europe.

On Saturday the National Institute for Public Health (RIVM) reported a total of over 2.9 million COVID-19 cases since the start of the pandemic, with 20,420 reported deaths. There were 14,616 new infections reported in 24 hours.


Brexit minister, David Frost has resign due to disillusionment with the PM.

According to a report the Britain’s Brexit minister David Frost has resigned due to disillusionment with Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s government, including the imposition of tax rises and additional COVID restrictions, the Mail on Sunday newspaper reported.

Frost has sensationally resigned from Boris Johnson’s government, the newspaper said.

Downing Street did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

The newspaper said Frost’s departure had been prompted by the introduction of additional COVID measures, including COVID passes, a broader discontent with tax rises and the cost of ‘net zero’ environmental policies.

The departure of the British government’s most senior Brexit negotiator is yet another blow to Johnson who has faced warnings from some of his own lawmakers that he must improve his leadership or face a challenge.

PM Johnson said on Friday he took personal responsibility for the loss of a Conservative stronghold in an election defeat that showed public dismay over a litany of scandals and stepped up pressure from mutinous lawmakers.

Frost, a supporter of Brexit, has led the attempts by London to renegotiate the terms of Britain’s exit from the European Union.

Lord Frost tendered his resignation a week ago – but was persuaded to stay until January, the newspaper said on Twitter.


China government has offered assistance to Nigeria over the spate of insecurity in the Country.

Following the high insecurity level in the country, Chinese government has offered to send a high-level delegation of criminal investigation experts to meet with Nigerian security chiefs.

Chinese Ambassador to Nigeria, Cui Jianchun disclosed this on Wednesday in Abuja while speaking to journalists on the sideline of the Oct. 1, China-Nigeria friendship award to students of the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.

Cui said that the move by China is part of its support to tackling the insecurity bedeviling Nigeria, disclosing that the security experts are expected to arrive Nigeria soon.

China’s Central government is really concerned about the security situation in Nigeria and also the Chinese Nationals in Nigeria.

We are working hard on how we can get support from China. I think that it really concerns every Nigerian and I believe this is not only about the Nigerian people and government but also, we need international support.

So now the Central government made the decision to send a High-Level delegation from the criminal investigation experts with real experience.

They come to Nigeria and get to talk to the people, the government, how can they find a way to work together to overcome the challenge they are facing, Cui said.

Prof. Kabiru Bala, Vice Chancellor,  of the Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria thanked the Chinese government for its support and the Nigerian government for its efforts in curbing insecurity.

Bala said that the University Campus has been secured to a large extent following the interventions of the government after the institution requested for reinforced security.

Let me sincerely appreciate the efforts of government. When we began to see signs of insecurity around the campus, we made a special visit to the Inspector General of Police.

To other government agencies, security agencies and I am happy to say that the response was quite appreciated.

There are things that I might not mention publicly but just to say the response was very good.

The Inspector-General put a lot of reinforcement around the campus with equipment and men. So far, the Campus is secured, Bala said.

On the Oct. 1 award to students of the University, Bala said the gesture from the Chinese government through the Embassy is a great encouragement to the students.

It is very edifying, when students excel there is need to recognize that excellence and this is one of those gestures by the Chinese government through the Chinese Embassy, Bala said.

The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that the award is part of the Chinese Embassy’s programme tagged Oct. 1 Scholarship for Nigeria-China Friendship.

Fifty students were awarded five million Naira by the Chinese Embassy under the event which is in commemoration of the 50 years of China-Nigeria friendship and bilateral relations.


Ohanaeze Ndigbo has charged the south east governors to relaunch the Ebubeagu security outfit in the region before the year ends.

Information reaching our desk said that the Leadership of Ohanaeze Ndigbo, the apex Igbo socio-cultural organization, has given South East governors two weeks to launch Ebubeagu. Speaking on the abandoned project of floating the Ebubeagu security outfit for the zone, Prof.

South Eastern Ebubeagu Security (SEES)

George Obiozor, the President General of the organization, said the ultimatum follows Ohanaeze’s meeting with the governors recently, and in which they gave their assurances to launch the security outfit to enhance security in the zone.

He, therefore, charged them to keep their promise and make the project a reality before the end of the year.

In a related development, he re-echoed the determination of the South East to produce the President of the country in 2023, vowing that the current insecurity challenge rattling the nation will not deter the organisation from realising the objective.

Obiozor said this in Owerri on Friday in his Christmas and New Year messages delivered to newsmen. While acknowledging the harsh times being experienced by the zone and the country in general, he expressed optimism that the coming year “will be a lot better than the outgoing one for Ndigbo and Nigeria in all ramifications.

He noted that insecurity in the South-East is politically orchestrated to achieve a desired political objective and also to deceive and divert the attention of the people of southeast and the rest of Nigeria.

He explained why Ndigbo should be given the Presidency: No people in recent history have been unfortunate or at least had a mixed fortune or blessings as Ndigbo in Nigerian politics and governance.

For example, quite often the Igbo energy and enterprise are misunderstood as being over-ambitious. The Igbo talents and ability to turn adversities into advantage, obstacles into opportunities and difficulties into dividends were misrepresented as attempt at domination.

Consequently, Ndigbo were confronted with anger or envy, hostility and violence at any given crisis in Nigeria and even outside Nigeria.

Ndigbo seek Nigerian unity but not the unity of slaves and masters; we seek peace but not peace of the graveyard. We seek justice because we know that throughout history those denied justice have had no interest in peace.

Today, Nigeria President of Igbo extraction is imperative and an idea whose time has come.


An operative of the Nigeria DSS have been kidnapped by unknown gunmen in Abuja.

According to an eyewitness the gunmen were said to have successfully kidnapped the DSS officer during a gun fight with his colleagues.

An operative of the Department of State Services (DSS) has reportedly been kidnapped by gunmen in Abuja during an attack in Abaji Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory.

The gunmen, who invaded the area also killed a vigilante member during the attack.

According to Punch, the armed men invaded the community in their numbers and attacked a DSS outpost in the area.

The gunmen were said to have successfully kidnapped the DSS officer during a gun fight with police operatives.

The FCT police spokesperson, Josephine Adeh, has yet to confirm the incident, saying she hasn’t received any information on the incident.


Taiwan government isolates itself from the proposed efforts to place ban on U.S pork.

Oneworldnews gathered that the Taiwan government on Saturday (Dec 18) voted against reimposing a ban on US pork in a contentious referendum that tested trade ties with Washington as the island seeks to expand its international presence.

President Tsai Ing-wen’s ruling party had campaigned against reinstating a block on all imports of pork containing ractopamine, an additive used by American farmers that enhances the growth of lean meat.

The substance is banned in places including the European Union, China and Russia.

The referendum proposal failed to pass with more than 4.13 million people voting “no” against around 3.94 million in favour.

It required nearly 4.96 million “yes” votes to reimpose the ban.

The result showed that Taiwanese people hope to go out to the world and are willing to actively participate in the international community”, Tsai told Oneworldnews reporter.

Her government lifted restrictions on ractopamine pork last year, angering local farmers in a move widely seen as a bid to make headway in trade talks with Washington.

The island’s political opposition seized on public unease about lifting the ban as restaurants started putting up signs proudly declaring they would only serve local pork.

Large protests were held and at one fierce parliamentary debate opposition lawmakers dumped a bucket of pig guts on the floor in protest.

Taiwan has a tradition of holding referendums on controversial issues.

The ruling Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) had warned that a “yes” vote on the pork ban would hurt Taiwan’s trade ties with its key ally and jeopardise a bid to join a major trans-Pacific trade pact.

It comes as Taiwan tries to expand its presence on the international stage in the face of efforts by China to isolate the island.

China has stepped up its campaign to sideline Taiwan since Tsai’s 2016 election win as she rejects Beijing’s stance that the island is part of Chinese territory.

Beijing has accused the DPP of “manipulating” referendum issues and “colluding with pro-Taiwan politicians in the United States and Japan” to fan anti-China sentiment.

The Taiwanese public also on Saturday rejected three other motions put to them in a vote, including a proposal to restart a nuclear power plant project that was sealed off in 2014 over safety concerns.


Ifeanyi Ejiofor lament over the health position of the embattled IPOB Leader Mazi Nnamdi Kanu

Lead Counsel Ifeanyi Ejiofor, to Mazi Nnamdi Kanu, the leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra, has reiterated that the Department of State Services (DSS) subjects his client to torture in detention.

Ejiofor, in his reaction to the DSS Public Relations Officer, Peter Afunanya’s statement on Tuesday, stated that Kanu was being mentally tortured, while describing the DSS account as “blatant falsehood.”

In a statement obtained by SaharaReporters on Wednesday, Ejiofor said, “Our position was to initially ignore the blatant falsehood deliberately dished out to the public by the DSS spokesperson, Mr Afunanya. But in view of the damage, the intended result will achieve, it is now compelling that we set the records right.

From Mr Afunanya’s analysis, it is evident that he is not even familiar with the extant provisions of the Anti-Torture Act 2017, a law every law enforcement official/personnel have sworn to protect. Our Client – Onyendu Mazi Nnamdi Kanu need not be subjected to daily beatings and flogging by the personnel of the DSS before he can be qualified as being tortured No.

Section 2(b)(iv) of the Anti-Torture Act 2017, defined torture to include: (b) Mental or psychological torture, which is understood as referring to such cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment calculated to affect or confuse the mind or undermine a person’s dignity and morale, such as (iv) Confinement in solitary cells against their will or without prejudice to their security.

This very law Mr Afunanya swore to protect also prescribes punishment of 25 years imprisonment upon conviction for personnel of any of the Security Agency found to be in breach of this Law. Section 8(1) of the Anti-Torture Act 2017 provides as follows: A person who contravenes section 2 of this Act commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 25 years.

We were unable to find in any place throughout his statement where Mr Afunanya clearly denied the fact that our Client Onyendu Mazi Nnamdi Kanu is not subjected to 23 hours daily solitary confinement.

In his desperate effort to deny the obvious, Mr Afunanya stated that our client is allowed the opportunity of daily changing of his clothes. This is a blatant falsehood. Apart from his lawyers, and persons who have visited him in custody, this fact can be verified from a highly respected man of God, Bishop Sunday Onuoha, who can confirm that on the two occasions he visited Mazi Nnamdi Kanu at the DSS facility, he was putting on the same cloth (joggers up and down). Our client has not changed this cloth since June 2021 he has been in the DSS facility till date.”

Ejiofor added, The Fendi cloth he was putting on at the time he was abducted in Kenya is the only cloth he has several times worn to court, the general public can attest to this fact. This is despite our plea to the authorities concerned that his clothes should be changed.

It is pertinent to inform the public at this juncture that even our Client’s family voluntarily bought his prayer shawls and the holy book, which items meant for prayers were submitted for the detaining authority’s scrutiny but they vehemently rejected the items and consequently returned them to us, insisting that they will procure the said items for him.

Till date, the DSS has woefully failed and/or refused to provide our Client with these items, even when the Court recently ordered that our Client be allowed to practise his religion.

The fact still remain that our Client’s potassium level is depleted, which is a serious medical condition that the medical department of the DSS is struggling day and night to address is beyond denial.

Onyendu’s blood sample has been drawn for well over 21 times for laboratory examinations but till date, no solution is in sight. Their trial and error has continued unabated.

Is Mr Afunanya by his position telling us that we, his Lawyers have no right to inform the public about the medical state of our Client? The answer is No. We cannot hide anything from the World, particularly when it is evident that our Client is being persecuted for offences he never committed.

(5) To be very fair to the DSS, from June 2021 when our Client was taken into custody up until 10th November 2021, when he was openly threatened in court by one of the DSS personnel that escorted him to court, our Client never complained to us that he was either being poorly fed or starved.

However, since that officer boasted in open court that he would deal with Onyendu during the altercation, which threat was captured in a short clip, they started feeding him with poorly prepared food, and later graduated to starving him. If they have reverted back to the status quo, it may be after we raised alarm, but this is still subject to confirmation.”

We find it very incomprehensible to believe that a supposedly responsible Agency of the Federal Government such as the Department of State Service, notable for their indiscretion to court pronouncements, instead of taking steps to address the serious issues we are raising concerning the ill-treatments being meted out to our Client, deliberately issued a statement fully known to them to be total falsehood?

Check it out, what are they trying to achieve by deceiving the public? This and many other questions are begging for answers. Let Mr Afunanya deal with these questions.