Happening: Suspected Herdsmen have been allegedly invaded and chased away a community in Edo State

following the happening oneworld learnt that there’s tension in Edo state as scores of persons with different kind of weapons, some of them dressed in military uniform, they’re suspected to be Fulani herdsman have reportedly invaded a farming community known as 2nd Abumere Ojigbelu Camp in Ovia Northeast  Local Government  Area of Edo State and chased the villagers away.

According to an eyewitness, they are alleged to have taken over the community farms land, homes and other available properties.


Some of the villagers who ran away for their lives and now taking refuge in other communities around Okada narrate their experiences.

Information have it that this armed men were said to have been chased away from the Okada area from where they ran to near Benin City.

One of the displaced farmers who incidentally is from Taraba State, Mr Mattu Alli, said:  I am short of words to explain what I witnessed, yesterday 2nd in our community.


I have been here for the past 20 years with my family farming. I was in my compound with my family when we started to hear the sound of guns and people running to different directions,  I saw one Benin man running towards my compound.

I asked him where are you running to and he said herdsmen have taken over the village chasing people away from their houses.

So I called my wife and we had to run for our lives. I did not see my children. Every one of us ran in different directions. As I speak to you now, I don’t know the whereabouts of my wife and children.

Another thing that put fears into our minds is that one of the Fulani herdsmen pointed a gun at me and said look man we are for peace, we would only kill you, people, if you refuse to allow our cows to feed on your crops.

The yams you people have are for our cows, the cassava and all that you have are for our cows. If you people touch our cows we will  kill everybody in this village

For us to be safe we ran to the next community.

Another victim, Mr Sunday Chimen, said: “Suddenly we heard gunshots and people running, we later discovered that Fulani herdsmen with AK-47 have taken over our community and were threatening to kill us if we didn’t cooperate with them. We decided to run for our dear lives leaving our properties with our children running to an unknown place. 

We are calling on the security agencies to come to our aid as our community is under siege. 

When contacted, Edo State Police Command Public Relations Officer, SP kotongs Bello, said he has not been briefed on the development and promised to get back as soon as he finished speaking with the Division Police Officer in charge of the area, but was yet to do so as at press time. 


Allowning Terrorist mount check points any where in the country means there’s two sovereignties.

According to Oneworld news line, it was reported that the Middle Belt Forum (MBF) has said that allowing terrorists mount check point in any part of the country amounts to telling the world that there are two sovereignties in Nigeria.

Welcoming Nigerians to the new year, MBF charged President Muham­madu Buhari and security agencies to defeat Boko Haram/bandits and ISWAP terrorising the Country.

Calling on President Buhari to re­scind his earlier decision not to sign the 2021 Electoral Act Amendment Bill, MBF, in a statement by its National President, Dr. Pogu Bitrus, said that the best this administration can offer Nige­rians is to provide a platform where the votes of citizens count.

The statement read: That we are alive today to witness the dawning of a new year demon­strates God’s great mercy on us as citizens of a beloved country passing through challenging times.

In the previous years, Ni­gerians, especially ethnic na­tionalities of the Middle Belt, suffered severe and persistent attacks from marauding gangs of murderous herdsmen whose agenda have always been to ex­terminate our people.

Recently, some of our people have come under severe attacks in many states of the Middle Belt, includ­ing Nasarawa where no fewer than 45 people were gruesome­ly massacred by coldblooded killer herdsmen.

These killings have become the trend in many parts of the Middle Belt region of Southern Kaduna, Niger, Plateau, Benue, Adamawa, among others.

In Damboa Local Govern­ment Area of Southern Borno, Boko Haram elements have completely taken over the LGA in the past three years without any challenge from the securi­ty personnel.

It is from Damboa LGA that Boko Haram launch­es attacks on communities, including the recent attack that killed a military general. Allowing the terrorist organi­sation to mount roadblocks in any part of Nigeria amounts to telling the world that there are two sovereignties in Nigeria.

In the new year, we call on President Muhammadu Bu­hari to send a clear message to the security forces to defeat Boko Haram and throw them out of Damboa LGA.

The MBF added that “the de­struction of our communities and the unprovoked killings of defenceless citizens can no lon­ger be tolerated. When innocent and vulnerable people are left unprotected from the terror of criminals, there can be no op­tion left than self-defence.

The Forum calls on rele­vant security agencies not to relent in cleansing our commu­nities of these terrorists who take pleasure in kidnapping, destroying our communities and dislocating our people.

The continuous wielding of arms by these criminals in daylight to intimidate locals must be stopped in order to protect our communities and not force then to embrace self-defence.

Closely tied to the hor­rendous attacks on our com­munities and the resultant displacement, with farmers abandoning farms in protect­ing their lives, is the problem of food security.

We do not need a prophet to warn us of the dire consequences of what this massive displacement of our farming population holds for our people.

justiceIn the face of these severe attacks that have not attract­ed commensurate responses from the security personnel, we call on security agencies to smoke out these murderous bandits from their holes and bring them to justice.

As an umbrella organisation of eth­nic nationalities in the Middle Belt region, we call on President Buhari to swiftly order the secu­rity agencies to stop the human carnage ripping across Nigeria, especially in the Middle Belt.

Calling on the National Assembly over recent develop­ment, the MBF said, “We also call the attention of the Nation­al Assembly to the charade go­ing on in Bauchi State where a court recently dismissed a suit challenging the state law­makers’ decision to relocate the headquarters of Tafawa Bale­wa Local Government Area to Bununu town.

Without any doubt, the court’s verdict and the state lawmakers’ decision violate the provisions of the Nigerian constitution that confer such powers on only members of the National Assembly.

We call on the leadership of the National Assembly to wade into the matter and order an immediate reversal to forestall the break­down of law and order.

Speaking on the Electoral Act, which the president failed to assent, MBF said, “With Nigeria marching to another national election year, the Fo­rum calls on President Buhari to rescind his earlier decision not to sign the 2021 Electoral Act Amendment Bill.

The best this adminis­tration can offer Nigerians is to provide a platform where the votes of citizens count. Strengthening the electoral process for transparent polls should be an irrevocable focus of the present administration.

No effort should be spared by the president to contain de­structive forces lurking in the dark and plotting anarchy for the country ahead of the 2023 polls.


Nigeria AGF raises alarm over 88,000 AK-47 rifles and other firearms and ammunition in the custody of the Nigerian Police Force are missing or unaccounted for.

According to our source the Office of the Auditor-General of the Federation (AuGF) has revealed that over 88,000 AK-47 rifles and other firearms and ammunition in the custody of the Nigerian Police Force are missing or unaccounted for, Oneworld learnt.

Meanwhile audit reviewed arms movement register, monthly returns of arms and ammunition and ammunition register at the armoury section.

In the number given, 88,078 AK-47 rifles. 3,907 assorted rifles and pistols across different police formations could not be accounted for as of January 2020.

A breakdown of the missing firearms showed that 601 firearms are missing from 15 training institutions; 42 in 23 formations; 1514 missing in 37 police commands; 29 missing in zone 1-12 were not also reported as required by law, with 1,721 firearms are missing in Police Mobile Force (PMF) 1-68. He said.

Records received from force armament unit at the Force Headquarters showed 21 Police Mobile Force (PMF) Squadron, Abuja, did not report a single case of missing firearm, whereas the schedule of missing arms obtained from the same PMF showed a total number of 46 missing arms between year 2000 and February 2019.

The value of the lost firearms could not be ascertained because no document relating to their cost of acquisition was presented for examination, the audit reporter added.

According to the report, 10 contracts totalling N1.136billion were awarded to a single proprietor in the name of different companies.

In the companies’ profiles, the contact phone numbers and email addresses of the three companies were the same.

The three companies did not disclose their relationship in accordance with the fundamental principles of procurement as required by extant regulation, the report stated.

It further said that the sum of N924.985million was paid for 11 contracts involving construction of three units of Gunshot Spotter System, supply of 50 units of Ballistic Roller Trolley and 20 units of Ballistic Mobile Surveillance House in some selected Commands and Formations.

Final payments were made in March 2019 without evidence of execution. Documents such as end user certificate, store receipt voucher (SRV), store issue voucher (SIV), job completion certificate were not presented for audit examination.

According to the document, the items claimed to have been constructed/supplied at the Force Headquarters, Federal Capital Territory (FCT) command, explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) unit and (PMF unit as specified in the award letters revealed that the contracts had not been executed by the time of physical verification of the purported items in June 2020.

Consequently, the auditor-general’s office asked the police force to explain why contracts were awarded to companies owned by same persons.


Carcinoid syndrome is a group of symptoms you might have with a type of cancer called carcinoid tumors.

What is Carcinoid Syndrome?

Carcinoid syndrome is a group of symptoms you might have with a type of cancer called carcinoid tumors. These tumors start in cells that make certain chemicals, and they release more of those chemicals into your bloodstream. The symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions like menopause or asthma. For example, there may be times when your skin suddenly gets red and warm, you have trouble breathing, or you have a rapid heartbeat.

Carcinoid tumors usually grow in your stomach and intestines, but you can also get them in your lungs, pancreas, testicles, or ovaries. If you have carcinoid syndrome, it usually means the cancer has spread, most often to your lungs or liver. If your doctor finds a tumor early, they might be able to remove it. But other times, there’s no cure for carcinoid tumors. Treatments can help you live longer and better. You can also take steps to relieve the symptoms and feel more comfortable.


Serotonin acts on smooth muscle to cause diarrhea, colic, and malabsorption. Histamine and bradykinin, through their vasodilator effects cause flushing.

The role of prostaglandins and various polypeptide hormones, which may be produced by paracrine cells, awaits further investigation; elevated human chorionic gonadotropin and pancreatic polypeptide levels are occasionally present with carcinoids.

Some patients develop right-sided endocardial fibrosis, leading to pulmonic stenosis and tricuspid regurgitation. Left-heart lesions, which have been reported with bronchial carcinoids, are rare because serotonin is destroyed during passage through the lungs.

Causes of carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome happens when a carcinoid tumor produces too many hormone-like substances. These may include serotonin, bradykinins, tachykinins, and prostaglandins.

When tumors are in the GI tract, the body is usually able to neutralize these substances.

When tumors are outside the GI tract, such as the liver or ovaries, the substances can’t be broken down. In these cases, the substances are released into the bloodstream which causes carcinoid syndrome symptoms.

Risk factors of carcinoid syndrome

Common risk factors in the development of carcinoid syndrome include:

  • Age (50 years or older)
  • Gender: female
  • Race: African Americans
  • Family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
  • Family history of neurofibromatosis type 1

Genetic syndromes such as

  • Tuberous sclerosis complex
  • Von Hippel Lindau disease
  • Familial small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor

Risk factors for carcinoid tumours of stomach

  • Atrophic gastritis
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Symptoms of carcinoid syndrome

The signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome depend on which chemicals the carcinoid tumor secretes into your bloodstream.

The most common signs and symptoms include:

  • Skin flushing. The skin on your face and upper chest feels hot and changes color — ranging from pink to purple. Flushing episodes may last from a few minutes to a few hours or longer.
  • Flushing may happen for no obvious reason, though sometimes it can be triggered by stress, exercise or drinking alcohol.
  • Facial skin lesions. Purplish areas of spiderlike veins may appear on your nose and upper lip.
  • Frequent, watery stools sometimes accompanied by abdominal cramps may occur in people who have carcinoid syndrome.
  • Difficulty breathing. Asthma-like signs and symptoms, such as wheezing and shortness of breath, may occur at the same time you experience skin flushing.
  • Rapid heartbeat. Periods of a fast heart rate could be a sign of carcinoid syndrome.

Possible Complications

Complications of carcinoid syndrome may include:

  • Increased risk of falls and injury (from low blood pressure)
  • Bowel obstruction (from tumor)
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Heart valve failure

A fatal form of carcinoid syndrome, carcinoid crisis, may occur as a side effect of surgery, anesthesia or chemotherapy.

Diagnosis of carcinoid syndrome

Your doctor will assess your signs and symptoms to rule out other causes of skin flushing and diarrhea. If no other causes are found, your doctor may suspect carcinoid syndrome.

To confirm a diagnosis, your doctor may recommend further tests, including:

Urine test. Your urine may contain a substance made when your body breaks down serotonin. An excess amount of this substance could indicate that your body is processing extra serotonin, the chemical most commonly excreted by carcinoid tumors.

Blood test. Your blood may contain high levels of certain substances, including the protein chromogranin A, which is released by some carcinoid tumors.

Imaging tests. Imaging tests also may be used to locate the primary carcinoid tumor and determine whether it has spread. Your doctor may start with a computerized tomography (CT) scan of your abdomen, because most carcinoid tumors are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Other scans, such as MRI or nuclear medicine scans, may be helpful in certain cases.

Treatment and medication


Surgery may be performed to remove the primary tumor and debulk liver metastases in carefully selected patients after multidisciplinary evaluation. For airway lesions, surgeries such as lobectomy, sleeve resection or pneumonectomy may be performed depending on the size and location of the tumor.

Somatostatin Analog Injections

Somatostatin analog (Sandostatin, Lanreotide) injections may reduce the signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome, including skin flushing and diarrhea. Somatostatin analogs are synthetic forms of somatostatin, a pancreatic hormone.

Hepatic Artery Embolization

Embolization is a therapy to treat liver tumors by blocking their blood supply. Because liver tumors thrive on highly oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery, blocking that supply may kill it. Chemoembolization, also known as Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE), adds the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the blockade of the tumor.

Locoregional Therapies

Radiofrequency ablation delivers heat through a needle to the metastatic cells in the liver, causing cell death. Cryotherapy works similarly, but by freezing the tumor. A new technology, microwave ablation (MWA), destroys liver tumors using heat generated by microwave energy.


Chemotherapy drugs may shrink neuroendocrine tumors, in particular, those of pancreatic origin. These include temozolomide, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and streptozocin-based chemotherapy regimens.

Loco-regional Therapies

Radiofrequency ablation delivers heat through a needle to the cancer cells in the liver, causing the cells to die. Cryotherapy is similar, but it works by freezing the tumor. A newer technology, microwave ablation (MWA), destroys liver tumors by using heat generated by microwave energy.

Other Medications

Anti-diarrheal and anti-cholinergic medications are also used. Patients are advised to avoid alcohol and foods with a high concentration of tyramine, which may worsen symptoms.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Talk to your doctor about self-care measures that may improve your signs and symptoms. Self-care measures can’t replace treatment, but they may complement it. Ask your doctor if you should:

  • Avoid things that cause skin flushing. Certain substances or situations, such as alcohol or large meals, can trigger flushing. Some people experience flushing when they’re feeling stressed or upset. Keep track of what causes your flushing, and try to avoid those triggers.
  • Consider taking a multivitamin. Chronic diarrhea makes it difficult for your body to process the vitamins and nutrients in the food you eat. Ask your doctor whether taking a multivitamin may be a good idea for you.

Outlook for carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome can have a significant impact on your quality of life. It can affect how you eat, exercise, and function on a day-to-day basis.

Carcinoid syndrome usually occurs with advanced carcinoid cancer, or cancer that’s metastasized to a distant site.

Cancer survival rates are based on the stage at diagnosis. The 5-year relative survival rates for GI carcinoid cancer are:

  • Localized: 98 percent
  • Regional: 93 percent
  • Distant: 67 percent

These figures are based on people diagnosed between 2008 and 2014. Keep in mind that cancer treatments change quickly. There’s a chance the general prognosis has improved since these figures were compiled.

In addition, these are only general survival rates. Your prognosis depends on a variety of factors, including your age and overall health. Your oncologist can review your medical history, assess your response to treatment, and provide a more personalized outlook.

Police rescues an 8 years old child from kidnappers in Edo state.

The Public Relations Officer (PRO) of the Edo State Police Command, Bello Kontongs, has narrated how an 8-year-old victim got rescued from kidnappers in her neighborhood.

The PPRO spoke concerning the incident during his recent interview on Channels TV.

Meanwhile parents and guardians have been briefed how important it is watching over their kids as kidnappers and other criminals are on a rampage.

A recent development in Esan North East, Edo State, may have reinforced the importance of the advice.

Narrating the incident, Bello said, A good samaritan rescued an 8-year-old girl in Uromi area.

The victim was tied in an uncompleted building located in the bush, but the good samaritan brought her to the police station. Upon interrogation, the little girl revealed that she got abducted by two young boys in her neighborhood.

The boys reportedly tied the victim’s mouth, hands, and legs before she got rescued.

The arrested suspects were a 13-year-old boy and an 18-year-old boy. They had reportedly planned to demand N500,000 ransom from the victim’s family.


India government said it has began vaccination of children.

The India government said it had started vaccinating children aged between 15 and 18 against COVID-19 on Monday (Jan 3) as it quickly expands its inoculation effort to cover the world’s largest adolescent population amid fears that the Omicron variant will drive a new surge of infections in the Country and globally.

India health Authority on Monday record 33,750 new COVID-19 cases and 123 deaths.

The total number of cases of the fast-spreading Omicron variant detected in India was 1,700, the health ministry said.

Private and public schools will double up as vaccination centres for children, and school authorities have been ordered to report their daily vaccination data to state authorities.

Children are going to be given vaccines in their schools. They can also go to vaccination centres and get the dose … they can just walk in, said Jai Prakash Shivahare, health commissioner in Gujarat state.

Several countries including the United States, Britain and South Korea have seen infections among children fuelling a rise in cases in recent weeks and have encouraged parents to get their children vaccinated.

Authorities in Gujarat, which is Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s home state, are hoping to give a first dose to 3.6 million children this week.

“We have the capacity and we have the vaccines to cover most of the children. We appeal to parents to cooperate and ensure the children are vaccinated at the earliest,” Shivahare said.

The United Nations children’s agency UNICEF estimates that India has the largest population of adolescents in the world, with about 253 million of them.

Thousands of children, many accompanied by parents, queued up outside schools, medical centres and special health camps from early on Monday to secure their first dose of a vaccine.

The government is only giving children Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin vaccine as that is the only vaccine with emergency use listing for the 15 to 18 age group, the health ministry said last week.

Adults in India get Covaxin, the AstraZeneca vaccine, which is branded as Covishield, and the Sputnik V shot.


Atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a combination of heart problems resulting in a defect in the center of the heart.


Atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a combination of heart problems resulting in a defect in the center of the heart. The condition occurs when there’s a hole between the heart’s chambers and problems with the valves that regulate blood flow in the heart.

Sometimes called endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal defect is present at birth (congenital). The condition is often associated with Down syndrome.

Atrioventricular canal defect allows extra blood to flow to the lungs. The extra blood forces the heart to overwork, causing the heart muscle to enlarge.

Untreated, atrioventricular canal defect can cause heart failure and high blood pressure in the lungs. Doctors generally recommend surgery during the first year of life to close the hole in the heart and to reconstruct the valves.

Types of atrioventricular canal defect

There are two general types of AVCD that can occur, depending on which structures are not formed correctly:

Complete AVCD

A complete AVCD occurs when there is a large hole in the center of the heart which allows blood to flow between all four chambers of the heart. This hole occurs where the septa (walls) separating the two top chambers (atria) and two bottom chambers (ventricles) normally meet. There is also one common atrioventricular valve in the center of the heart instead of two separate valves – the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the mitral valve on the left side of the heart. This common valve often has leaflets (flaps) that may not be formed correctly or do not close tightly. A complete AVCD arises during pregnancy when the common valve fails to separate into the two distinct valves (tricuspid and mitral valves) and when the septa (walls) that split the upper and lower chambers of the heart do not grow all the way to meet in the center of the heart.

Partial or Incomplete AVCD

A partial or incomplete AVCD occurs when the heart has some, but not all of the defects of a complete AVCD. There is usually a hole in the atrial wall or in the ventricular wall near the center of the heart. A partial AVCD usually has both mitral and tricuspid valves, but one of the valves (usually mitral) may not close completely, allowing blood to leak backward from the left ventricle into the left atrium.


Atrioventricular canal defect occurs before birth when a baby’s heart is developing. Some factors, such as Down syndrome, might increase the risk of atrioventricular canal defect. But the cause is generally unknown.

The normal-functioning heart

The heart is divided into four chambers, two on the right and two on the left.

The right side of your heart moves blood into vessels that lead to the lungs. There, oxygen enriches the blood. The oxygen-rich blood flows back to your heart’s left side and is pumped into a large vessel (aorta) that circulates blood to the rest of your body.

Valves control the flow of blood into and out of the chambers of your heart. These valves open to allow blood to move to the next chamber or to one of the arteries, and close to keep blood from flowing backward.

What happens in atrioventricular canal defect?

In partial atrioventricular canal defect:

  • There’s a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
  • Often the valve between the upper and lower left chambers (mitral valve) also has a defect that causes it to leak (mitral valve regurgitation).

In complete atrioventricular canal defect:

  • There’s a large hole in the center of the heart where the walls between the atria and the lower chambers (ventricles) meet. Oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood mix through that hole.
  • Instead of separate valves on the right and left, there’s one large valve between the upper and lower chambers.
  • The abnormal valve leaks blood into the ventricles.
  • The heart is forced to work harder and enlarges.

Risk factors of atrioventricular canal defect

Factors that might increase a baby’s risk of developing atrioventricular canal defect before birth include:

  • Down syndrome
  • German measles (rubella) or another viral illness during a mother’s early pregnancy
  • Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  • Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy
  • Smoking during pregnancy
  • Certain medications taken during pregnancy — talk to your doctor before taking any drugs while you’re pregnant or trying to become pregnant
  • Having a parent who had a congenital heart defect

What are the signs and symptoms?

The size of the openings will affect the type and severity of symptoms, as well as the age at which they first occur. The larger the openings, the more serious the condition.

If your baby has complete AVSD, the signs and symptoms usually become clear in the first few weeks of life. Symptoms vary for each child, but commonly include:

  • Difficult or congested breathing
  • Poor appetite or poor weight gain
  • Lack of interest or unusual tiredness during feeding
  • Cyanosis: A blue tone to the skin, lips, or nails
  • Pale, cool or sweaty skin
  • A heartbeat that is too fast

Complete AVSD may lead to congestive heart failure. If your baby develops congestive heart failure, the signs and symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue, weakness, and lack of alertness
  • Sudden weight gain or swelling of the legs, ankles, feet or belly
  • A heartbeat that is irregular or too fast
  • Coughing or wheezing that doesn’t go away, sometimes with white or pink phlegm that has blood in it

If your child has partial AVSD, signs and symptoms may not become clear for weeks, months, or even years. Some people with partial AVSD don’t show signs until they are adults in their 20s or 30s, whey they may develop conditions such as abnormal heart rhythm, congestive heart failure and high blood pressure in the lungs.

Your baby’s doctor may also suspect partial AVSD if he or she hears a heart murmur — an abnormal whooshing noise, heard through a stethoscope exam, which may indicate a problem with blood flow. Most heart murmurs are called “innocent heart murmurs.” Children with innocent heart murmurs do not have a heart defect and do not experience heart problems. However, if a heart murmur is present along with other symptoms, your doctor may want to investigate further by ordering other tests.

Complications of AVCD or AVSD

AVSD may have trouble breathing and they may not grow normally. Left untreated, the potential complications of AVSD also include:

  • Pneumonia: Untreated AVSD may lead to repeated problems with this lung infection.
  • Enlargement of the heart (cardiomegaly): Increased blood flow through the heart forces it to work harder, which causes it to grow larger.
  • Congestive heart failure: Left untreated, AVSD causes congestive heart failure, a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
  • High blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension): When the heart weakens and can’t pump enough blood, this increases blood pressure in the heart and lungs. High blood pressure in the blood vessels in the lungs can cause lung damage.
  • Bacterial endocarditis: A serious infection of the lining of the heart.

How is an atrioventricular canal defect diagnosed?

Front view cross section of heart showing atria on top and ventricles on bottom. Mitral and tricuspid valves are rebuilt. Patch is in ASD and another patch in VSD.

During a physical exam, the healthcare provider checks for signs of a heart problem such as a heart murmur. This is an extra noise caused when blood doesn’t flow smoothly through the heart. If a heart problem is suspected, your child may be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. This is a doctor with special training to diagnose and treat heart problems in children. To check for an AV canal defect, the following tests may be done:

  • Chest X-ray. X-rays are used to take a picture of the heart and lungs.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). The test records the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Echocardiogram (echo). Sound waves (ultrasound) are used to create a picture of the heart and look for structural defects.
  • Cardiac catheterization: a thin tube is inserted into the heart through a vein and/or artery in either the leg or through the umbilicus (“belly button”).
  • Pulse oximetry: a noninvasive way to monitor the oxygen content of the blood.
  • Cardiac MRI. This test gives 3-D images of the heart. It can show any defects.

How is an atrioventricular canal defect treated?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. All children with an AVCD will need to have surgery to fix it. They may also need other treatments.


Many children will need medicine to help their heart and lungs work better, such as:

  • This medicine helps the heart pump better.
  • This medicine helps the kidneys remove extra fluid from the body.
  • ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. These medicines make it easier for the heart to pump blood to the body.


Babies may become tired when feeding. This may stop them from eating enough to gain weight. Your child may need:

  • High-calorie formula or breastmilk. Your child may need special nutritional supplements added to his or her formula or pumped breastmilk.
  • Supplemental tube feedings. Your child may need to be fed through a tube. This small, flexible tube passes through the nose, down into the esophagus, and into the stomach. Your child may have tube feedings in addition to or instead of formula or breastmilk.

Infection control

Children with heart problems are at risk for infections of the lining of the heart and heart valves (bacterial endocarditis). Make sure that you tell all of your child’s healthcare providers that your child has an AV canal defect. Your child may need to take antibiotics before medical tests or procedures to prevent infections.


Your child will need surgery to repair the septal openings and heart valves. This is done to stop his or her lungs from becoming damaged further. Your child’s heart doctor will decide when the best time for surgery is. After the surgery, your child’s heart doctor may give him or her antibiotics. This is to prevent infections after he or she leaves the hospital.

Most children have surgery by the age of 6 months. Children with Down syndrome may develop lung problems earlier, and may need to have surgery at a younger age.

Support Care

Babies with AVSD may have slower growth and harder time eating. A high calorie diet may be recommended. These babies also have a higher risk of severe infections. Respiratory or lung infections will be treated very carefully.

Some will need to have activity limits as they get older. This is more common if valves can not be fully repaired and blood flow is still mixed.

Long Term Care

Your baby will be watched throughout their life. Problems can happen as they get older. Watching them on a regular basis will let their doctor treat problems as they come up. This may involve:

  • A yearly exam with a heart specialist
  • Regular tests of heart function
  • Changes to treatment plan

Prevention of atrioventricular canal defect

There is no way to prevent AVCD since the cause is unknown. Heredity may play a role in some heart defects. If you have a family history of heart defects or if you already have a child with a congenital heart defect, talk with a genetic counselor and a cardiologist before getting pregnant again.

Immunization with rubella vaccine has been one of the most effective preventive strategies against congenital heart defects.

Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic condition that affects many parts of the body.


Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. In infancy, this condition is characterized by weak muscle tone (hypotonia), feeding difficulties, poor growth, and delayed development. Beginning in childhood, affected individuals develop an insatiable appetite, which leads to chronic overeating (hyperphagia) and obesity. Some people with Prader-Willi syndrome, particularly those with obesity, also develop type 2 diabetes (the most common form of diabetes).

People with Prader-Willi syndrome typically have mild to moderate intellectual impairment and learning disabilities. Behavioral problems are common, including temper outbursts, stubbornness, and compulsive behavior such as picking at the skin. Sleep abnormalities can also occur. Additional features of this condition include distinctive facial features such as a narrow forehead, almond-shaped eyes, and a triangular mouth; short stature; and small hands and feet. Some people with Prader-Willi syndrome have unusually fair skin and light-colored hair. Both affected males and affected females have underdeveloped genitals. Puberty is delayed or incomplete, and most affected individuals are unable to have children (infertile).


Prader-Willi syndrome has been reported worldwide. Reported prevalence rates for Prader-Willi syndrome range from 1 per 8000 population in rural Sweden to 1 per 16,000 population in western Japan. Despite findings that suggest a prevalence rate of 1 per 52,000 population in the United Kingdom, Whittington et al estimate that the actual prevalence rate is higher and propose a true prevalence rate of 1 per 45,000 population.

Prader-Willi syndrome risk factors

Risk factors may also include having a previous child with PWS. Yet, NIPT is difficult to utilize with certainty to search for the 15q11-q13 deletion, the most common genetic cause of PWS.

  • Individuals with PWS are at risk for bacterial and fungal skin infections at sites of skin picking and in skinfold (fat) creases.
  • Diabetes mellitus type II has been observed in those with PWS, particularly if obesity is present. The risk for diabetes is lowered when weight is reduced.
  • Individuals with PWS may be at increased risk for respiratory problems, especially as infants. Problems at birth due to hypotonia, weak chest muscles, and poor swallowing reflexes may include asphyxia, apnea, respiratory failure, and hypoventilation.
  • Children with PWS are at risk for osteoporosis/osteopenia, consider a DEXA scan to evaluate for body composition, including bone mineral density, particularly in the setting of a fracture.

Cardiovascular risk is higher in individuals with PWS for a variety of reasons, including:

  • Overeating and obesity
  • Poor dietary habits
  • Diabetes
  • Excess work of breathing
  • Unexplained elevations of C-reactive protein
  • Severe obstructive sleep apnea
  • Thrombophilia

In older individuals, these factors can result in hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, right-sided heart failure, and pulmonary embolism, particularly in morbidly obese individuals.

Causes of Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by a missing gene on chromosome 15. Normally, parents each pass down a copy of this chromosome. The defect can occur in a couple of ways:

  • The father’s genes are missing on chromosome 15
  • There are defects or problems with the father’s genes on chromosome 15
  • There are two copies of the mother’s chromosome 15 and none from the father

These genetic changes occur randomly. People who have this syndrome usually do not have a family history of the condition.

Symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome

Typical symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome include:

  • An excessive appetite and overeating, which can easily lead to dangerous weight gain
  • Restricted growth (children are much shorter than average)
  • Floppiness caused by weak muscles (hypotonia)
  • Learning difficulties
  • Lack of sexual development
  • Behavioural problems, such as temper tantrums or stubbornness

A 10-months-old baby weighs 62 pounds (28 kilograms) – Roughly the equivalent of an average 9-year-old child

Typical findings of hands and legs in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome

Complications of Prader-Willi syndrome

Obesity-related complications

In addition to having constant hunger, people with Prader-Willi syndrome have low muscle mass, so they need fewer than average calories, and they may not be physically active. This combination of factors makes them prone to obesity and the medical problems related to obesity, such as:

  • Type 2 diabetes
  • High blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease
  • Sleep apnea
  • Other complications, such as an increased risk of liver disease and gallbladder stones

Complications of inadequate hormone production

Complications arising from inadequate hormone production may include:

Sterility: Although there have been a few reports of women with Prader-Willi syndrome becoming pregnant, most people with this disorder are unable to have children.

Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle, so they may break easily. People with Prader-Willi syndrome are at an increased risk of developing osteoporosis because they have low levels of sex hormones and may also have low levels of growth hormone — both hormones help maintain strong bones.

Other complications

Other complications that can result from Prader-Willi syndrome include:

Effects of binge eating: Eating large amounts of food quickly, called binge eating, can cause the stomach to become abnormally enlarged. People with Prader-Willi syndrome may not report pain and they rarely vomit. Binge eating can also cause choking. Rarely, a person may eat so much that it causes stomach rupture.

Reduced quality of life: Behavioral problems can interfere with family functioning, successful education and social participation. They can also reduce the quality of life for children, teenagers and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

Diagnosis and test

PWS is diagnosed using a series of specialized genetic tests.  Common chromosome tests such as karyotype do NOT reliably detect genetic changes of PWS.  Genetic testing for PWS can be expensive and may require sending blood and saliva samples to specialized laboratories.

DNA Methylation Testing is the best initial test for determining PWS.  This test detects >99% cases of PWS. It may also be referred to as “Prader-Willi/Angelman DNA methylation Panel”.  All three genetic subtypes of PWS will have a positive DNA methylation analysis for PWS.

The FISH test can be used to determine if the subtype of PWS is deletion, however, it will not detect the other two subtypes of PWS, therefore it should not be used as the first genetic test.

Chromosome Microarray testing can be used to detect chromosome deletions and many cases of uniparental disomy (UPD).


Prader-Willi syndrome treatment involves many different medical and social care professionals. Treatment is mainly provided as an outpatient or on a day care basis, although some medical investigations, emergency problems and operations may require overnight stays in hospital. As Prader-Willi syndrome is so complex and causes problems from the beginning of life, families and carers need education about the syndrome as well as support from the start. Patient support groups can be particularly helpful.

There are many different aspects to the treatment of Prader-Willi syndrome:

Management of feeding, obesity and mouth care

  • Tube feeding may be needed in newborns and infants for a few weeks or months.
  • Management of obesity is essential because drugs and surgery have so far not been of benefit in treating the excess hunger. Bariatric surgery for obesity is also associated with unacceptable risks and is therefore not advised.
  • People with Prader-Willi syndrome will need to be supervised to avoid them overeating or being able to buy too much food. Families and carers need to learn, early on, how to control the way food is presented and how easily it is available at home. A low-calorie, well-balanced diet with regular exercise is vital. This type of management affects the patient’s and family’s rights and privacy, so it is important that they have appropriate psychological and behavioural counselling.
  • Poor production of saliva may be helped by products designed to increase saliva flow such as special toothpaste, mouthwash and sugarless gum.


  • Physiotherapy programmes are often used in childhood.
  • Speech and language therapy during childhood will help with impaired speech and delay in developing language.


  • Diabetes mellitus, which is common in Prader-Willi syndrome, may need drugs such as metformin, pioglitazone and sometimes insulin.
  • Drugs to lower cholesterol and blood pressure may be needed.
  • Growth hormone therapy should be considered in childhood (certainly as early as one to two years, if not between 6 to 12 months) to improve growth during childhood, adult height, reduce body fat, increase muscle and bone strength and quality of life, and possibly help brain development and function. This may also be effective even after completion of growth in adulthood.
  • Occasionally thyroid hormone and rarely, steroid hormones (hydrocortisone) may be needed.
  • At some stage, almost all patients will require sex hormonal treatment (testosterone in boys, oestrogen and progesterone in girls) to help start or maintain puberty.
  • As adults, treatment with sex hormones is often needed for bone and metabolic health and possible benefits to mental, emotional and physical wellbeing in both boys and girls, and muscle mass in boys.
  • Infections from any skin lesion may need treatment with antibiotics.


  • If the testes have not descended in boys they may need fixing in the scrotum through surgery during the first or second year.
  • In cases of disturbed breathing at night, surgery to remove tonsils and adenoids may be necessary (especially in children), and sometimes the use of oxygen and machines to help with breathing while asleep (called ‘CPAP’ or ‘NIPPV’).
  • Bracing or back surgery are sometimes needed for curvature of the spine.
  • Bariatric surgery for obesity is associated with unacceptable risks and is not advised for patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

Behaviour management

It is important to manage temper outbursts, skin picking and repetitive behaviours in a consistent way by trying to reduce the number of times they occur and to manage them when they do occur.

Severe changes in mood, e.g. depression, or psychosis usually require the expertise of a psychiatrist with experience in people with learning difficulties. People with Prader-Willi syndrome may react strongly to life events, e.g. bereavement or a change in living arrangements. Severe mood changes may also be brought on by changes in routine, sleep disturbance or some medications. Doctors may consider the use of antidepressant or anti-psychotic drugs, starting on lower-than-normal doses with careful monitoring for side-effects.

It is vital that everyone involved in the care of people with Prader-Willi syndrome recognises the difference between the underlying behavioural problems seen in Prader-Willi syndrome and acute psychiatric illness.

Prevention of Prader-Willi syndrome

There is no way to prevent Prader-Willi syndrome since it is a genetic disorder. Adequate prenatal care and healthy habits, such as eating a healthy diet and avoiding tobacco and alcohol, may help reduce the risk of genetic defects in general.

PWS may run in families. If you have a family history of the disorder or already have a child with the condition, speak to a genetic counselor before planning your pregnancy.

Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder caused due to abnormalities in chromosome 15. This syndrome primarily affects the child’s metabolism, physical appearance, and behavior.

Early diagnosis and the right treatment, including supportive therapies and weight management, can improve the baby’s quality of life.

House wife and four others shot dead in an attack by Bandit/terrorist in Kaduna state.

Information reaching Oneworld news line have it that terrorist in Kaduna State have attacked a village along the road to Plateau state, it was gathered that they broke into a house and shot dead one Mrs.  Hadiza Mohammed, a housewife.

It was learnt that security agencies in Kaduna State inform the State Government that 5 people were also killed and one injured, during the attack by bandits/terrorist in Kerawa, Igabi LGA and in Zangon Kataf.

One world news line report learnt that, bandits invade the village, shoot aimlessly, and killed four residents, the victims that were shot dead are as follow, Lado Shuaibu , Usman Haruna ,Ayuba Muntari 
and Jafar Abdullahi.

Mr. Samuel Aruwan, the state Commissioner of Home Affairs and Internal Security, said in a statement that one Mallam Mamuda was left injured, as the bandits carted away some motorcycles and supplies from the community.

In another incident, armed bandits attacked commuters along the Ungwan Rimi-Afana road in Zangon Kataf LGA. One Joshua Kawu sustained gunshot wounds to the chest, and was rushed to hospital, where he was unfortunately confirmed dead. 

Governor Nasir El-Rufai received the reports with deep sadness, and conveyed his sincere condolences to the families of the citizens who were killed in the attacks across the two local government areas.

He wished the injured person a speedy recovery as he commiserated with the attacked communities. 

Security agencies have sustained and intensified patrols in both general areas,” the Commissioner said.

Also,the security agencies  reported to the Kaduna State Government that two people were killed by bandits in two attacks occurring in Igabi and Chikun local government areas. 

The reports said bandits invaded Sabon Garin Ungwar Dalha, a village on the outskirts of the Maraban Jos area, Igabi local government area. 

The armed bandits attacked the village and broke into some homes, all the while shooting into the air.

One Hadiza Mohammed, a housewife, was shot and died instantly. 

In the second incident, bandits attacked Ungwan Zallah in Udawa, Chikun LGA, and one Moses Jaja was shot dead. 

Governor Nasir El-Rufai received the reports with sadness and prayed for the repose of the victims’ souls.

The Commissioner said monitoring of both areas was being sustained by security agencies.