Giant cell arteritis also called temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis is a disorder in which the lining of the large blood vessels in your head.

What is Giant Cell Arteritis?

Giant cell arteritis also called temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis is a disorder in which the lining of the large blood vessels in your head, and sometimes other parts of the body, become inflamed, which can narrow or completely block the affected arteries, compromising blood flow. Giant cell arteritis is so named because when you look at biopsies of inflamed temporal arteries (those on the side of your head in front of your ears) under a microscope, you can see large or “giant” cells.

GCA occurs in older adults, usually in people over the age of 50. It’s most common between the ages of 70 and 80 (74 is the average age of onset, according to the Vasculitis Foundation). GCA is more common in women than in men (though some research indicates men are more likely to experience serious eye involvement).

The more you know about giant cell arteritis including recognizing its symptoms and understanding how it is treated the better position you’ll be in to get prompt medical help and manage your condition.


GCA almost exclusively develops in persons older than 50 years. GCA is the most common systemic vasculitis in Western countries. The highest incidence rates are described in Scandinavian countries and North American populations of the same descent. GCA is more common among women than men. In the past few years, a progressive increase in the incidence has been reported.

Risk factors

Although the exact cause of giant cell arteritis is unknown, factors that usually contribute in increasing the risk for developing the condition may include:

Age: Giant cell arteritis usually affects older adults such as in 70 years of age. Giant cell arteritis is very rare in individuals younger than 50 years of age.

Sex: Women are two times more prone to giant cell arteritis when compared to men.

Northern European (Especially Scandinavian Descent): Giant cell arteritis is very common among people in Northern European countries. Individuals of Scandinavian origin specifically get affected with giant cell arteritis.

Polymyalgia Rheumatica: Patients suffering with polymyalgia rheumatica have aching and stiffness in the shoulders, hips and neck. Approximately 15 percent of individuals suffering with polymyalgia rheumatica also suffer with giant cell arteritis.

Causes of Giant Cell Arteritis

GCA affects the temporal arteries and it can develop in the thoracic artery, too. There is one temporal artery on each side of the head. Each one runs over the part of the skull that is above and around the ear. The two arteries themselves run up in front of the ear. They branch off from the two main blood supplies to the head from the heart.

  • The exact cause of GCA is unknown, but it is thought to be an auto-immune condition, in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells in the arteries. This leads to inflammation.
  • When the blood vessel lining becomes inflamed, giant cell lesions can form.
  • These giant cells form when numerous immune cells fuse together. These immune cells are a type of white blood cell.
  • Giant cells also play a role in tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, some fungal infections, and other conditions.


Symptoms include headaches and blurred or double vision, which is the result of inflammation causing the lining of affected arteries to swell to such a degree that blood flow is reduced or blocked.  The condition usually begins with mild flu-like symptoms including mild fever and a persistent dull headache. Specific signs and symptoms will depend on which arteries are involved. These may include:

  • Jaw pain – particularly when chewing
  • Hearing problems
  • Vision problems eg: blurred or double vision, loss of visual field
  • Aching muscles about the neck and shoulders
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Depression

Other symptoms can include tenderness of the scalp, cough, throat pain, tongue pain, and weight loss. There may also be visible swelling of the arteries on the side of the forehead.  Symptoms may be vague at first, with a feeling of being generally unwell. Some patients have many symptoms; others have only a few. Symptoms tend to worsen as the condition progresses.

Giant Cell Arteritis Complications

Giant cell arteritis can cause serious complications, including:

Blindness: Diminished blood flow to your eyes can cause sudden, painless vision loss in one or, rarely, both eyes. Loss of vision is usually permanent.

Aortic aneurysm: An aneurysm is a bulge that forms in a weakened blood vessel, usually in the large artery that runs down the center of your chest and abdomen (aorta). An aortic aneurysm might burst, causing life-threatening internal bleeding. Because this complication can occur even years after the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, your doctor might monitor your aorta with annual chest X-rays or other imaging tests, such as ultrasound and CT.

Stroke: This is an uncommon complication of giant cell arteritis.

Diagnosis and test

GCA can lead to vision loss early on, so it is essential that patients with suspected disease be evaluated promptly. Your doctor will consider a number of factors, including symptoms, medical history, physical exam findings, and results of blood tests and imaging studies. A biopsy of the arteries in one or both temples is usually obtained to confirm the diagnosis. If GCA is suspected, your doctor may begin steroid treatment even before the diagnosis is confirmed, to prevent complications such as vision loss.

Physical exam: Your doctor will check for tenderness, swelling, or decreased pulse in the temporal arteries on either side of the head, as well as tenderness in the temples or scalp. Also, decreased pulses in the arms or legs or discrepancy in blood pressure between any of the four extremities could suggest GCA.

Blood tests: The two main tests for GCA include the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), commonly called the “sed rate,” and the C-reactive protein test (CRP), both of which can detect inflammation. However, these tests are not conclusive on their own.

Imaging studies: For detailed images of the blood vessels, your doctor may order a magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), which combines the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast material; an ultrasound; or a PET scan, which uses a special dye injected into the arm to enhance detail in the images of your blood vessels.

Biopsy: The gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of GCA is biopsy of the temporal artery. A segment of the artery is surgically removed, and then examined under a microscope. In most cases of GCA, there will be evidence of inflammation that includes abnormally large cells called giant cells which give the disease its name. However, in some individuals the biopsy may be negative or normal, even though the disease is present.

Treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis

Treatment focuses on controlling inflammation and preventing complications. This will develop a plan for you that may include the following:

  • Initially, you will likely be given high doses of prednisone. The steroid dose typically is tapered over several months based on your response.
  • Your rheumatologist may also recommend the drug Actemra (tocilizumab), which was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. It is given as a subcutaneous injection at Immunotherapy Infusion Service centres..
  • You may also be placed on a low-dose aspirin regimen to prevent heart attack or stroke.
  • You will also undergo a baseline bone density analysis to rule out osteoporosis, or bone fragility. Extended use of prednisone increases your risk of osteoporosis.
  • You will need regular checkups with your doctor to monitor medication side effects and overall health.
  • You may need yearly imaging tests to check on the aorta or other large blood vessels.

Side effects of prednisolone

About one in 20 people who take prednisolone will experience changes in their mental state when they take the medication. For example, you may feel very depressed and suicidal, very anxious or very confused. Some people also experience hallucinations (feeling, seeing or hearing things that are not there). Contact your doctor as soon as possible if you experience changes to your mental state.

Other side effects of prednisolone include:

  • Increased appetite that often leads to weight gain
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Mood changes, such as becoming aggressive or irritable with people
  • Weakening of the bones (osteoporosis)
  • Stomach ulcers
  • Increased risk of infection – particularly to the virus that causes chickenpox and shingles (varicella-zoster virus).

Seek immediate medical advice if you think that you have been exposed to the varicella-zoster virus or if a member of your household develops chickenpox or shingles.

The risk of these side effects should improve as your dosage of prednisolone is decreased.

Giant Cell Arteritis Prevention

Prompt treatment is essential to prevent permanent vision loss and damage to other tissues. The increasing age, the condition and the treatment can increase the risk of certain conditions like muscle weakness, osteoporosis, blood pressure, and weakened immune system.

Nigeria government obtain permission to use Super Tucano jet against bandits in the North.

Oneworld news line gathered that the Nigeria Government has obtained permission to use the Super Tucano jets bought from the U.S. against bandits in the North-West and North-Central States.

This was stated by the Attorney-General of the Federation and Minister of Justice, Abubakar Malami, disclosed this on Tuesday. 

He further said that the gazetting of the Super Tucano is in progress. The clearance to use the Super Tucano has also been obtained, Mr. Malami stated during a breakfast show on NTA on Tuesday.


Imo State government alleges that Senator Rochas Okorocha and Chief Uche Nwosu behind unrest in Imo State.

The Imo state Governor, Hope Uzodimma had promised to name those behind the inhuman and demonic attacks in the state when he meets with Imo Stakeholders today, Tuesday, January 4, 2021.

Meanwhile, during the meeting at the Government House, Owerri.

The administration in a statement signed by Chief Press Secretary/Media Adviser to the Governor, Mr.Oguwike Nwachuku, announced that Sen. Okorocha and Mr. Uche Nwosu have been indentified by a suspects who’s currently in detention as prime creator of the insecurity in Imo state.

Senator Rochas Okorocha, and Uche Nwosu have been allegedly identified by a suspect as the Sponsors Of Kidnapping, Banditry In Imo State.

According to the oneworld news line it reports says that the Immediate Past Imo State governor, Senator Rochas Okorocha, and his son-in-law, Chief  Uche Nwosu have been identified by the Imo State Government as sponsors of Kidnapping destruction of properties and banditry in the state.

For the avoidance of doubt, Okorocha and Nwosu have been specifically mentioned by suspects who are in the custody of security agents, as being sponsors of kidnapping and banditry in Imo State, using their relationship with former ex-militants to perpetrate the crimes.

Rather than clear their names, they appear bent on using both overt and covert means to blackmail the Police High Command, which legitimately arrested Uche Nwosu. They are also actively seeking to dent the image of the fine security officers attached to the Governor of Imo State, the statement issued on Monday and made available to News Express via e-mail, said.

Plot by those believed to be fueling insecurity, particularly kidnapping, banditry, arson and cannibalism  in Imo State ahead of January 4, 2022 Imo Stakeholders meeting got to a head on Monday with false news of the alleged arrest of the security officers attached to Governor Hope Uzodimma.

Governor Uzodimma, it is believed, will  use the Stakeholders meeting to expose the identities of those behind insecurity and other forms of criminality in Imo State.

This has prompted Imo citizens to become more curious to discover the identities of those undermining their peace and prosperity. Thus, the current media frenzy by both Rochas Okorocha and Uche Nwosu appears to be strengthening the notion of their culpability.

To discredit the government and undermine the peace which the Governor has achieved so far, as was evident in the large number of Imo people who came back home from around the world for Christmas and New Year festivities, the duo have resorted to publishing falsehood yet again about security officers in the State Government House.

Their claim of the arrest and detention of a certain Shaba, whom they falsely allege to be the CSO to the Imo State Governor is strange as the Governor’s CSO is not known by the name of Shaba both officially and otherwise. 

In addition, no security officer in the Governor’s security team was either arrested or is currently unaccounted for. As such, the entire story can best be described as a poorly scripted fabrication aimed at misleading the unsuspecting public.

For the avoidance of doubt, Okorocha and Nwosu have been specifically mentioned by suspects who are in the custody of security agents, as being sponsors of kidnapping and banditry in Imo State, using their relationship with former ex-militants to perpetrate the crimes.

Rather than clear their names, they appear bent on using both overt and covert means to blackmail the Police High Command, which legitimately arrested Uche Nwosu.

They are also actively seeking to dent the image of the fine security officers attached to the Governor of Imo State.
The public must be informed that the entire report is false and a failed attempt to frustrate the Imo Stakeholders meeting taking place on Tuesday.

The mass of Imo People, who are undoubtedly peaceful and fun loving are enjoined to discountenance the serial falsehood that continue to be churned out by the embattled duo. The focus and direction of the Gov. Uzodimma led government, it must be emphasized, will continue to be about the wellbeing of the people of the State, no matter what it takes.


So Sad: Three killed in an attack by terrorist in Plateau state.

It has been reported that not less than three persons have been reportedly killed by terrorist at Rafin Bauna in Bassa Local Government Area of Plateau State.

According to our source the victims were ambushed and killed by terrorist.

Plateau State Governor, Simon Lalong, in a press statement signed by Director of Press and Public Affairs, Makut Simon Macham, condemned the attack and urged security operatives to unmask the perpetrators and bring them to book.

The governor described the attack as yet another callous attempt by the enemies of peace to begin the new year with violence, saying that the government would resist such attempts with all resources available to it.

He said that security report available to him indicated that the victims were on their way from Dutsen Kura to Rafin Bauna when they were ambushed and killed by the  assailants who are  still at  large.

Lalong has, therefore, charged security agencies to conduct a thorough investigation and ensure that the assailants are fished out and brought to justice, as the state government was more than ever committed to making life difficult for criminals.

He sympathised with the families of the victims and assured them that justice would be done.

The Governor has warned kidnappers to leave the state as anyone who caught and convicted for kidnapping would face the death penalty.

speaking at the Catholic Cathedral, Shendam, where he reassured the citizens of the State that the Government would  increase its fight against all kinds of crimes,especially kidnapping which has become a greater threat to peace and security of the citizens.


Milk allergy is one of the more common food allergies and affects many people.


Milk allergy is one of the more common food allergies and affects many people. It’s a result of an abnormal immune response to the constituent parts of the milk from any animal (the most common allergy response is due to alpha S1-casein, a protein in cow’s milk). Milk-induced allergic reactions can range from mild to severe and can lead to anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition.

Milk allergies are believed to affect up to 3 percent of children under the age of 3. Although it was once believed that these allergies would be quickly outgrown, many recent studies have challenged that notion. One study found that less than 20 percent of children with milk allergies had outgrown their allergy by their 4th birthday. There is hope for milk allergy sufferers though: approximately 80 percent of children do outgrow their allergy by mid-adolescence.

As one of the most common food allergies, people with an allergy to cow’s milk should also be aware there is a good chance they may also be allergic to milk from other animals, including sheep’s and goat’s milk products.


It is difficult to determine the exact prevalence of cow’s milk allergy due to a lack of a precise criterion for diagnosis. Often the term allergy is interchanged with intolerance or hypersensitivity. In the developed world, the prevalence appears to be 2 to 3% in infants. There is no evidence that prevalence is increasing, and parents perceive cow’s milk allergy more frequently than can be proven with an oral challenge. By the age of 6, the prevalence has fallen to less than 1%.

Types of Milk Allergy

IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy

In an IgE-mediated allergy, symptoms usually appear within minutes or up to two hours after eating anything that contains cow’s milk protein. This is because the immune system reacts to cow’s milk protein by producing IgE antibodies. These antibodies are produced by immune cells and activate the immune system to release chemicals such as histamines, which then trigger an immediate allergic reaction.

If it is IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy, you may notice:

  • Skin symptoms such as itchy rash, hives and swelling of the lips, tongue or face
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms such as tummy pain, vomiting and diarrhoea
  • Hay fever-like symptoms such as sneezing and an itchy, runny or blocked nose
  • Breathing difficulties

In very severe cases, an IgE-mediated allergic reaction could lead to anaphylaxis — a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that comes on quickly, affects the whole body, and requires medical help straight away. Fortunately, this type of allergic reaction is uncommon.

Non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy

In non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy, symptoms usually appear after two hours or up to a few days after eating anything containing cow’s milk protein.

Some symptoms of non-IgE-mediated allergy can be similar to those of IgE-mediated allergy. Others might be less obvious and could be mistaken for something other than a food allergy. The signs of non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy could include:

  • Colic-type symptoms
  • Skin symptoms such as eczema and itching
  • Reflux
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms such as unusual stools, tummy pain and constipation

Mixed allergic reaction

Some babies with cow’s milk allergy can have mixed allergic reactions, where they have symptoms of both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated allergy. This means that the symptoms could come on quickly after eating or drinking anything with cow’s milk protein and they could also appear after a few days.

Risk factors

Certain factors may increase the risk of developing milk allergy:

Other allergies: Many children allergic to milk also have other allergies. Milk allergy may develop before other allergies.

Atopic dermatitis: Children who have atopic dermatitis – a common, chronic inflammation of the skin are much more likely to develop a food allergy.

Family history: A person’s risk of a food allergy increases if one or both parents have a food allergy or another type of allergy or allergic disease such as hay fever, asthma, hives or eczema.

Age: Milk allergy is more common in children. As they age, their digestive systems mature, and their bodies are less likely to react to milk.

Causes of Milk Allergy

All true food allergies are caused by an immune system malfunction. If you have milk allergy, your immune system identifies certain milk proteins as harmful, triggering the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to neutralize the protein (allergen). The next time you come in contact with these proteins, IgE antibodies recognize them and signal your immune system to release histamine and other chemicals, causing a range of allergic signs and symptoms.

There are two main proteins in cow’s milk that can cause an allergic reaction:

  • Casein, found in the solid part (curd) of milk that curdles
  • Whey, found in the liquid part of milk that remains after milk curdles

You or your child may be allergic to only one milk protein or to both. These proteins may be hard to avoid because they’re also in some processed foods. And most people who react to cow’s milk will react to sheep’s, goat’s and buffalo’s milk. Less commonly, people allergic to cow’s milk are also allergic to soy milk.

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES)

A food allergen can also cause what’s sometimes called a delayed food allergy. Although any food can be a trigger, milk is one of the most common. The reaction, commonly vomiting and diarrhea, usually occurs within hours after eating the trigger rather than within minutes.

Unlike some food allergies, FPIES usually resolves over time. As with milk allergy, preventing an FPIES reaction involves avoiding milk and milk products.

Milk allergy symptoms

There are a wide range of milk allergy symptoms that can involve the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract and the skin.

Gastrointestinal tract symptoms may present as abdominal pain, vomiting or diarrhea and account for about 50% of milk allergy symptoms;

Respiratory tract symptoms can include nasal congestion, coughing and sneezing and typically account for about 20% to 30% of symptoms;

Skin complaints, such as rash, eczema and hives represent about 30% milk allergy symptoms

Infantile colic – prolonged episodes of irritability, fussiness and crying is often attributed to an allergy to cow’s milk protein. However, evidence fails to support that an allergy to cow’s milk is the cause of colic. The exact cause of colic remains unknown.

Other symptoms such as colic, ear infections, migraines and behavioural problems are sometimes associated with milk allergies, but this relationship has not yet been substantiated.

Complications of Milk Allergy

Children with milk allergy may have a higher risk of experiencing the following complications.

Insufficient supply of vital nutrients that can hinder the growth and development of a child. In such cases, along with a well-balanced diet, nutritional supplementation may be necessary for some time to ensure the child’s uninterrupted growth and development.

Allergies to other foods, such as peanuts, eggs, and soy, may occur. Research shows that children with milk allergy are more likely to develop other food allergies. The child may also have a higher risk of developing allergies against airborne particles, such as pollen.

Poor nutrition, due to the absence of milk in the diet, can be mitigated through alternative food items. Parents of children with milk allergy should be alert to the presence of other allergies.

Diagnosis and test

Tell your child’s healthcare provider if anyone in your child’s family has a history of allergies or a milk allergy. Tell him when your child first started having a reaction to milk. Describe the reaction and how long it lasts. Your child may need additional testing if he developed anaphylaxis after he was exposed to a trigger and then exercised. This is called exercise-induced anaphylaxis. A trigger can be any food or a specific food your child is allergic to. Your child may need any of the following:

A skin prick test is used to check for an allergic reaction. Your child’s healthcare provider will scratch your child’s skin and add a small amount of milk protein. He will watch for signs of an allergic reaction, such as hives or swelling.

A sample of your child’s blood may be checked for a reaction to milk protein.

An elimination test may be used if your child does not have an immediate allergic reaction to milk protein. Your child will not eat or drink any milk products for a few weeks. He will then be given a milk product. His healthcare provider will watch for a reaction. Your child may need to have this test repeated every 6 to 12 months to see if he might be able to start having milk.

Treatment and medications

The best way to manage all types of milk allergies and milk sensitivities is to avoid consuming dairy products. While there is no definitive treatment for milk allergy, some of the following measures may be taken to limit reactions:

  • Infants who develop milk allergies way before starting on solid foods may be prescribed hypoallergenic infant formula.
  • For a life-threatening allergic reaction, treatment includes administering injectable epinephrine, oral or injectable antihistamines, or oral or injectable corticosteroids.
  • Treatment of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) includes administering intravenous hydration and intravenous corticosteroids.

Milk and milk products may also be hidden sources in commonly eaten foods. In order to avoid foods that contain milk products, it is necessary to read food labels.

Important information about avoiding milk and milk products:

  • The words “non-dairy” on a product label indicate it does not contain butter, cream, or milk. However, this does not necessarily indicate it does not have other milk-containing ingredients.
  • The Kosher food labeled “pareve” or “parve” almost always indicates food is free of milk and milk products. A “D” on a product label next to the circled K or U indicates the presence of milk protein. These products should be avoided.
  • Processed meats, including hot dogs, sausages, and luncheon meats, frequently contain milk or are processed on milk-containing lines. Carefully read all food labels.

FoodsAllowedNot allowedBeverages

  • Carbonated beverages
  • Coffee
  • Tea
  • Soy substitute-milk formulas, water
  • Fruit drinks
  • All milks (whole, low-fat, skim, buttermilk, evaporated, condensed, powdered, hot cocoa)
  • Yogurt, eggnog, milkshakes, malts
  • All beverages made with milk or milk products


  • Milk free breads
  • French bread
  • Wheat, white, rye, corn, graham, gluten, and soy breads made without milk or milk products
  • Graham cracker or rice wafers
  • Wheat, white, or rye breads
  • Biscuits, donuts, muffins, pancakes, waffles, zwieback, crackers, saltines, rusk
  • Most commercially prepared breads and rolls contain milk or milk products
  • French toast made with milk

CerealsAny cereal to which no milk or milk products have been added

  • High protein cereals
  • Prepared and precooked cereals with milk solids, casein, or other milk products added


  • Meringue, gelatin, popsicles, fruit ice, fruit whip, angel food cake
  • Cakes, cookies, and pie crusts made without milk or milk products
  • Cake, cookies, custard, pudding, cream desserts, or sherbet containing milk products
  • Ice cream, cream pie
  • Pastries brushed with milk, junket, popover

EggsPrepared without milkScrambled with milk, creamed eggs, egg substitutesFats

  • Vegetable oil, meat fat, lard, bacon, shortening, milk free gravy
  • Peanut butter (made without milk solids)
  • Margarine without milk solids
  • Kosher margarine
  • Butter, cream, margarine
  • Salad dressing or mayonnaise containing milk, milk solids, or milk products
  • Some butter substitutes and non-dairy creamers

FruitsFresh, frozen, or canned fruits and juicesAny served with milk, butter, or creamMeats, fish, poultry, & cheese

  • Baked, broiled, boiled, roasted or fried: beef, veal, pork, chicken, turkey, lamb, fish, organ meats, or tofu (prepared without milk or milk products)
  • Sausage, deli/luncheon meats, or ham if made without milk products
  • All cheese, cottage cheese, cream cheese
  • Some sausage products, bologna, frankfurters
  • Breaded meats, meatloaf, croquettes, casseroles, hamburgers (unless made without milk)
  • Commercial entrees made with milk or milk solids

Potatoes & substitutes

  • Macaroni, noodles, spaghetti, rice
  • White or sweet potatoes prepared without milk, butter, cream, or allowed margarine
  • Au gratin, buttered, creamed, scalloped potato or substitutes
  • Macaroni and cheese
  • Mashed potatoes containing milk or butter
  • Frozen french fries sprayed with lactose

SoupsBouillon, broth, consommé or soups with broth base plain or with all allowed foods

  • Bisques, chowders, creamed soups
  • All soups made with milk or milk products


  • Corn syrup, honey, jam, jelly
  • Hard candy, candy made without milk or milk products
  • Granulated, brown or powdered sugar

Candy made with milk such as chocolate, fudge, caramels, nougatVegetables

  • All fresh, frozen, or canned vegetables without milk or milk products added
  • All vegetable juices
  • Au gratin, buttered, creamed, or escalloped vegetables
  • Batter and dipped vegetables
  • Vegetable souffles


  • Catsup, olives, pickles, nuts, herbs, chili powder, salt, spices, condiments
  • Any foods that are milk/cheese/butter free or that do not contain powdered milk or whey
  • All items containing milk, cheese, butter, whey casein, caseinates, hydrolysates, lactose, lactalbumin, lactoglobulin or milk solids, artificial butter flavour
  •  Non-dairy substitutes containing caseinate


There are two primary proteins that can cause an allergic reaction: casein and whey. Casein is found in the solid part of milk that curdles, while whey is found in the liquid. Those who suffer from a dairy allergy may be triggered by only one protein or by both.

Not surprisingly, both casein and whey are found in a vast variety of dairy products. And while milk allergy is typically linked to cow’s milk, adverse reactions can also stem from goat, buffalo, or sheep’s milk. Examples of common foods to avoid include:

  • Cheese
  • Cottage cheese
  • Custard
  • Cream
  • Buttermilk
  • Pudding
  • Sour cream
  • Yogurt
  • Milk in all forms (including powdered milk and evaporated milk)

Products that contain milk ingredients and protein can also trigger an allergic reaction, such as foods that are made with dairy, whey, lactose, and casein. Those with a dairy allergy should stay away from these allergy-triggering ingredients:

  • Butter, butter fat, butter oil, butter acid, butter ester(s)
  • Diacetyl (often found in butter flavoring)
  • Rennet casein (milk protein often used in processed cheese or deli meats)
  • Tagatose (often used as an artificial sweetener)
  • All forms of whey (concentrate, isolate, and hydrolysate)
  • Any artificial butter or cheese flavoring

Milk proteins and by-products are present in far more than dairy products, which can make it challenging to avoid allergic triggers. Check the label on salad dressings, baked goods, cereals, donuts, cake mixes, and any canned or processed meats to ensure there are no harmful ingredients.

The Sudan Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok has resigned on Sunday.

According to Oneworld news line, it was learnt that the Sudan Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok has resigned on Sunday, more than two months after a coup and following another deadly crackdown on protesters, with the military now in control.

Sudan had been having fragile issues with the civilian rule since the 2019 ouster of autocrat Omar al-Bashir but was plunged into turmoil when military leader General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan launched his coup on October 25 and detained Hamdok.

Hamdok was reinstated on November 21 under a deal promising elections for mid-2023, but local media had recently reported he had been absent from his office for days, with rumours swirling over his possible resignation.

I have tried my best to stop the country from sliding towards disaster, Hamdok said Sunday evening, addressing the nation on state television.

Sudan is crossing a dangerous turning point that threatens its whole survival,” he said.

Hamdok was the civilian face of the country’s fragile transition, while Burhan has been the country’s de facto leader following Bashir’s ouster.

Hamdok cited “the fragmentation of the political forces and conflicts between the (military and civilian) components of the transition and said that despite everything that has been done to reach a consensus… it has not happened.

Mass protests against the coup have continued even after Hamdok was reinstated, as demonstrators have distrusted veteran general Burhan and his promise to guide the country toward full democracy.

Protesters have also charged that the deal to reinstate Hamdok simply aimed to give a cloak of legitimacy to the generals, whom they accuse of trying to continue the regime built by Bashir.

No To Military Rule’
Thousands of demonstrators on Sunday braved tear gas, a heavy troop deployment, and a telecommunications blackout to demand a civilian government.

They lambasted the coup, shouting power to the people and demanding the military return to the barracks, at protests near the presidential palace in the capital Khartoum and in its twin city Omdurman.

The pro-democracy Doctors’ Committee said security forces killed three protesters, including one who was shot in the chest and another who suffered a “severe head wound.

As with previous demonstrations, which have become regular since the coup, the authorities had erected roadblocks, with shipping containers blocking Nile River bridges between the capital and outlying areas.

But thousands still came out to demonstrate “in memory of the martyrs”, with at least 57 protesters now killed since the coup, according to pro-democracy medics.

Young men on motorcycles were seen ferrying wounded protesters to hospitals as security forces blocked ambulances from reaching them.

Web monitoring group NetBlocks said mobile internet services were cut from mid-morning ahead of the protests, the first of the year. They were restored in the evening.

Activists use the internet for organising demonstrations and broadcasting live footage of the rallies.

Protests since the army’s takeover have been repeatedly broken up by security forces firing rounds of tear gas, as well as charges by police wielding batons.

Sudan has a long history of military takeovers, but Burhan has insisted the armed forces’ move “was not a coup” but a push to “rectify the course of the transition”.

On Friday an official advisor warned that the demonstrations are a waste of energy and time” which will not produce “any political solution.

Activists have said on social media that 2022 will be the year of the continuation of the resistance.

They demand justice for those killed since the coup as well as the more than 250 who died during the months of mass protests that paved the way for the toppling of Bashir.

Activists have also condemned sexual attacks during December 19 protests, in which the UN said at least 13 women and girls were victims of rape or gang-rape.

The European Union and the United States issued a joint statement condemning the use of sexual violence “as a weapon to drive women away from demonstrations and silence their voices.

On Saturday, US Secretary of State Antony Blinken warned that Washington was prepared to respond to those who seek to block the aspirations of the Sudanese people for a civilian-led, democratic government and who would stand in the way of accountability, justice, and peace.

Over 14 million people, one in three Sudanese, will need humanitarian aid during the coming year, according to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs the highest level for a decade.


The Botswana President, Mokgweetsi Masisi had tested positive to Covid-19

The Botswana President, Mokgweetsi Masisi had tested positive to Covid-19, He is in isolation after his testing results was released and it came out positive for Covid, the government said on Monday.

The president does not have any symptoms and will continue to receive close medical monitoring by his medical doctors, it said in a statement, adding that the test had been carried out as a matter of routine.

The Vice President Slumber Tsogwane will take over from him until further notice, the statement said.

On November 25, South African scientists said that cases of a new Covid-19 variant, later called Omicron, had been detected nationally and in neighbouring Botswana.

Omicron is highly contagious, although there are also signs that it is less likely to cause severe illness compared with previous variants, according to researchers.

Last week, South Africa lifted a nightly curfew that had been in place for 21 months, saying that its latest wave of infections had peaked without a surge in deaths or hospitalisations.

Botswana has recently launched booster jabs for people who have already been vaccinated and lowered the age of inoculation to 12.

A diamond-rich country the size of France, Botswana has a reputation for political stability and the richness of its wildlife.

President Masisi, 60 years old, first took office as president in 2018, taking over from Ian Khama, who stepped down after two terms in office. He was re-elected in 2019.