The Oha-na-eze Ndigbo has faulted the IPOB ban on the Nigeria national anthem across the eastern region.

According to oneworld news line, it was learnt that the apex Igbo socio-cultural organization, Ohanaeze Ndigbo has faulted the Indigenous People of Biafra, IPOB, over the ban it placed on Nigeria National Anthem across the whole south east zone.

Meanwhile, the statement released on Wednesday by the Ohanaeze Secretary-General, Mazi Okechukwu Isiguzoro, he cautioned that such an order would jeopardize the ongoing effort to release the detained IPOB leader. He said.

He further said that the order may affect the ongoing diplomatic efforts to free Mazi Nnamdi Kanu from detention in DSS custody.


Misophonia, also known as the “hatred or dislike of sound,” is characterized by the sensitivity to specific sounds, accompanied by an unpleasant emotional and/or physical response.


Misophonia, also known as the “hatred or dislike of sound,” is characterized by the sensitivity to specific sounds, accompanied by an unpleasant emotional and/or physical response. People with misophonia liken the experience of the sound trigger more closely to irritation, disgust, or even pain, rather than anxiety or fear.

The sounds that trigger this discomfort are typically highly specific, including sounds emitted in the context of common human behavior (e.g., chewing, breathing, swallowing, stepping, tapping, and speaking).

In some cases, the extreme sound sensitivity is associated with a specific individual (e.g., “her brother chewing” or “his mother’s voice”). In other cases, symptoms may me more generalized (e.g., “women’s voices”), or to environmental stimuli (e.g., “fluorescent lightening”).

Triggers of Misophonia

Specific, unpleasant noises are the primary triggers of misophonia. Chewing noises tend to be the most common trigger, but sounds like slurping, clicking, sniffling, tapping, cracking knuckles, clipping nails, and crunching can all be triggers as well. Some people experience misophonia in response to sounds made by inanimate object like motors whirring, clocks ticking, or machines running.

Other triggers of include:

  • Feeling trapped with a particular sound
  • Believing someone is making that sound on purpose
  • Experiencing stress in other areas of life

Misophonia risk factors

Risk factors are unknown. It is possible–but far from certain–that the following factors may contribute to a risk of developing misophonia:

  • Anxiety or anxious personality
  • Autism
  • Hearing impairment
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Other sensory processing disorders


The definite cause is not known yet. But the doctors have confirmed that Misophonia is not due to any hearing disorder (problem with your ears) or entirely a psychiatric issue. It is considered partially a mental and physical illness, also known as a brain-based disorder. In many cases, Misophonia occurs along with an anxiety dysfunction like –

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Tourette’s disorder
  • An eating disorder like anorexia nervosa (self-starvation) and bulimia nervosa (eating large amounts of food).

Symptoms of Misophonia

Misophonia usually develops in early adolescence, and many people describe first becoming aware of triggers in their parents or primary caregivers growing up. It may become more pervasive over time, producing more triggers or a stronger reaction, or it might remain relatively stagnant in its severity. While people may notice they are more tolerant of triggers when they are displayed by someone they know or love, the reaction is generally present regardless of the company.

Some trigger responses may include:

  • Crying related to agitation
  • Panic attacks
  • Removing oneself from the area
  • Inability to speak or move
  • Moderate to severe agitation
  • Violent thoughts or impulsivity
  • Intense anxiety
  • Increased heart rate
  • Sweating

The overwhelm of emotions and intense physiological reactions to triggers can cause some people with misophonia to seek alcohol or drugs to help cope. Though some have said the mind-altering effects can diminish the effects of a trigger at the moment it arises, cumulative substance use can have the opposite effect, heightening someone’s overall sensitivity to triggers. For this reason, people with misophonia are generally discouraged from alcohol and drug use.

Complications of Misophonia

The potential complications may include:

  • Disruption of normal, day-to-day activities
  • Decreased quality of life
  • Social isolation
  • Inability to concentrate and perform tasks
  • Anxiety and depression
  • Outbursts, which may be violent
  • Thoughts of suicide

Diagnosis and test

It is not an official diagnosis, and some doctors may mistake misophonia for anxiety or another disorder. Researchers at the University of Amsterdam suggest that misophonia be considered a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder and propose that misophonia be diagnosed based on the following criteria:

  • The presence or anticipation of a specific sound produced by a human being instantly provokes disgust or irritation followed by anger.
  • A person senses a loss of self-control initiated by anger.
  • The person recognizes their anger as unreasonable.
  • The person tends to avoid situations that would cause triggers, and experiences extreme discomfort when forced to endure triggers.
  • Misophonia causes great distress or interferes with a person’s day-to-day life.
  • The symptoms are not explained by another disorder.

To make a diagnosis, a doctor will need to consider trigger reactions and co-occurring conditions as well. They might use a misophonia test like the Misophonia Assessment Questionnaire. It is most likely self-diagnosed or identified by a friend or family member.

Treatment and medications

There are currently no established treatments. However, some treatment options that may be beneficial include:

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): This approach can help people change some of the negative thoughts and associations with the sounds that typically trigger a response.

Medications: While there is no medication approved to treat misophonia, medications may be prescribed to treat co-occurring conditions such as anxiety or depression.

Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT): This approach involves wearing a device to produce attention-diverting noises, therapy to teach people to ignore the noises, and relaxation techniques to minimize the automatic stress response. While traditionally used in the treatment of tinnitus, TRT may help people with misophonia learn to better tolerate certain triggering noises.

Ways to cope with symptoms of misophonia are:

  • Getting regular exercise
  • Getting plenty of sleep
  • Managing stress
  • Wearing headphones or ear plugs
  • Creating a quiet space in your home

Prevention of Misophonia

Presently, there are no guidelines or methods available for the prevention of Misophonia.

  • Seeking medical attention for certain psychological conditions and eating disorders may help decrease the possibility of excessive emotional reactions seen in this disorder
  • Caffeine is known to exacerbate the symptoms. Therefore, limiting caffeine intake may help manage the symptoms better
  • Active research is currently being conducted to explore the possibilities for treatment and prevention of Misophonia
  • Regular medical screening may be recommended

Persistent genital arousal disorder (also known as persistent sexual arousal syndrome and restless genital syndrome) is defined as feelings of spontaneous.


Persistent genital arousal disorder (also known as persistent sexual arousal syndrome and restless genital syndrome) is defined as feelings of spontaneous, persistent and intense genital arousal with or without orgasm, with or without genital engorgement, in the absence of sexual desire. This rare and unique sexual arousal problem is extremely distressing for women who experience it and many do not report this sexual complaint to physicians because of embarrassment, humiliation, shame and frustration. Feelings of arousal are usually very powerful and extreme and persist for extended periods (hours, days or weeks).

Orgasm may provide several hours of relief but in most women with persistent genital arousal disorder the forceful arousal symptoms return quickly. Women who have persistent genital arousal disorder cannot concentrate on even mundane projects because it is impossible to ignore the constant arousal. Evaluation of a women suspected of having persistent sexual arousal syndrome involves a detailed psychologic evaluation, sexual, medical and psychosocial history, physical examination, laboratory tests of blood hormone levels and specialized testing of genital sensation and genital blood flow.


The earliest references to PGAD may be Greek descriptions of hyper sexuality (previously known as “satyriasis” and “nymphomania”), which confused persistent genital arousal with sexual insatiability. While PGAD involves the absence of sexual desire, hyper sexuality is characterized as heightened sexual desire.

The term persistent sexual arousal syndrome was coined by researchers Leiblum and Nathan in 2001. In 2006, Leiblum renamed the condition to “persistent genital arousal disorder” to indicate that genital arousal sensations are different from those that result from true sexual arousal. The rename was also considered to give the condition a better chance of being classified as a dysfunction


PGAD prevalence seemed to be more common than suspected (1%). PGAD has officially been defined in terms of five diagnostic criteria. Patients were on average from 35 to 54 years old. Among them, 29.9% to 67% were menopausal. PGAD was highly associated with overactive bladder (OAB) (67%), restless legs syndrome (RLS) (67%) and pelvic varices (55%).

Risk factors of Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

The risk factors for Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder may include:

  • Increased intake of soy products
  • Sacral spinal cysts (Tarlov cysts)
  • Nerve injuries
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Psychological disorders such as anxiety, panic, and depression
  • Being on medications for psychological disorders (such as anti-depressants)
  • Hyper-sensitivity to small changes in physical sensations
  • Onset of menopause
  • Overactive bladder
  • Physical inactivity

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Causes

PGAD can have a number of causes, but a specific cause is often hard to diagnose.

The known Cause includes sexual stimulation, masturbation, anxiety, and stress. However, a non-sexual activity like going to the toilet may result in severe arousal as to be painful.

Most women do not understand their symptoms, therefore, even after careful assessment, no palpable cause is found. Nevertheless, there are some circumstances that accompany PGAD.

These may include but not limited to:

  • Restless Legs Syndrome (sufferers usually have a feeling of needing to move the legs frequently, especially at night).
  • Pudendal Neuralgia- Long-term pelvic pain that is instigated by damage or irritation of the pudendal nerve. The Pudendal Nerve is the nerve to the vulva, clitoris, and lower vagina.
  • Overactive Bladder (an umbrella name for a group of urinary symptoms. It is not quite regarded as an illness. Accompanying common symptom is a sudden, uncontrolled need or urge voiding urine)
  • Neurological disease, including Parkinson’s Disease, Epilepsy or Tarlov Cysts of the spine ( theses are fluid-filled sacs found on the sacral nerve root, this nerve is in charge of conveying information to the bladder, colon and genital areas;). A study found that, ‘’66% of women with PGAD presented with Tarlov cysts’’.
  • History of Sexual Abuse- In these set of women, genital sensations, on the whole, may be unwelcome.
  • Anxiety, depression, or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

Symptoms of Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

Although PGAD is not currently an officially recognized disorder, researchers have proposed the following symptoms for persistent genital arousal disorder:

  • Symptoms of physiologic sexual arousal (genital fullness or swelling and sensitivity with or without nipple fullness or swelling) that persist for hours or days and do not subside completely on their own
  • These symptoms do not resolve with ordinary orgasmic experience and might require multiple orgasms over hours or days to remit (for some women, this might include spontaneous and intense orgasms different from deliberate orgasms resulting from sexual excitement and activity)
  • Symptoms of arousal are usually experienced as unrelated to any subjective sense of sexual excitement or desire
  • The persistent genital arousal can be triggered not only by a sexual activity but also by non-sexual stimuli or by no apparent stimulus at all
  • Arousal symptoms feel unbidden, intrusive, uninvited, and unwanted, and the symptoms cause at least a moderate degree of distress

Complications of Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

The complications of Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder may include:

  • Embarrassment
  • Emotional distress and stress
  • Severe depression that may lead to suicidal thoughts

Complications may occur with or without treatment, and in some cases, due to treatment also.

Diagnosis and test

To diagnose PGAD, 5 different features should be present:

  • The genital arousal should last for an extended time (hours to months)
  • No other cause for genital arousal should be present
  • The genital arousal should be unrelated to feelings of sexual desire
  • The arousal sensation should feel intrusive and unwanted, and be associated with some distress
  • The arousal sensation should persist, at least to some degree after orgasm

Distress is important in the diagnosis of PGAD, as there may be a set of women who experience sensations of genital arousal and find them neutral or even pleasurable and hence do not fit the criteria of PGAD.

Treatment and medications

Although research has not resulted in a ‘gold standard’ approach to managing PGAD, we have found the following treatments really helpful for patients suffering with PGAD:

Education: it is crucial to understand PGAD and what is contributing to your symptoms. Knowing more reduces the stress, anxiety and concern you have over your symptoms and starts to move you into positive action to manage PGAD.

Manual therapy: to relieve over activity or spasm in the internal or external pelvic floor muscles.

Home exercises: to give you targeted tools to manage and improve your symptoms at home. This may include strategies to relieve internal pelvic tension, stretch and release external pelvic muscle tension and mindfulness or meditation to calm down your nervous system.

Also: Avoiding tight clothing or sitting on vibrating platforms or bumpy car trips. These things may further trigger PGAD symptoms

There may be a need to use medications to assist your healing and recovery.

Here is some best medication that is used to cure PGAD:

  • Fluoxetine, which is one of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI generally used to cure panic disorder, depressive disorder and bulimia.
  • Clomipramine which is an antidepressant basically used to cure obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Lignocaine gel that is used to numb the area after it is applied

Best way to overcome PGAD

Many lubrications or gels or oils can help to aid such problem. These can be used for both women and men. However man have several gels or sprays that can improve healthy arousal. One of the best gel or oil, which can help men to sexually arouse on time, is by using VigRX Oil.

This is a natural supplement that increases seminal fluid and helps men to reduce the problem they are suffering from like PE or last longer in bed. This oil is just amazing as it fills with stamina, desire and more enjoyment.

Takayasu’s arteritis is an uncommon form of vasculitis. Inflammation damages large and medium-sized blood vessels.

Understanding Takayasu’s arteritis

Takayasu’s arteritis is an uncommon form of vasculitis. Inflammation damages large and medium-sized blood vessels. The vessels most commonly affected are the branches of the aorta (the main blood vessel that leaves the heart), including the blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and travel through the neck to provide blood to the brain. The aorta itself is also often affected.

Segments of blood vessels can weaken and stretch, resulting in an aneurysm. They can also become inflamed and narrowed, resulting in restricted blood flow. Lastly, blood vessels can become completely blocked (called an occlusion).

Less commonly, arteries that provide blood flow to the heart, intestines, kidneys and legs may be involved. Inflammation of large blood vessels may cause segments of the vessels to weaken and stretch, resulting in an aneurysm. Vessels can also become narrowed or even completely blocked (called an occlusion).

Takayasu’s arteritis Prevalence

Takayasu’s arteritis is primarily a disease of adolescent girls and young women, who account for 80-90% of cases. The prevalence is highest in the Asian population but it is seen in all races and geographic areas. South America has now been recognized as an area of high incidence.


Takayasu’s arteritis can be divided into the following six types based on angiographic involvement.

Type I – Branches of the aortic arch

Type IIa – Ascending aorta, aortic arch, and its branches

Type IIb – Type IIa region plus thoracic descending aorta

Type III – Thoracic descending aorta, abdominal aorta, renal arteries, or a combination

Type IV – Abdominal aorta, renal arteries, or both

Type V – Entire aorta and its branches

Takayasu’s arteritis Risk factors

Common risk factors in the development of Takayasu’s arteritis include:

  • Female gender
  • Age <40
  • Asian ethnicity
  • Genetic predisposition

Infectious agents such as:

  • Spirochetes
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Streptococcal organisms

Causes of Takayasu’s arteritis

In Takayasu’s arteritis, the aorta and other major arteries, including those leading to the head and kidneys, become inflamed. Over time, the inflammation causes changes in these arteries, including thickening, narrowing and scarring.

The result is reduced blood flow to vital tissues and organs, which can lead to serious complications and even death. Sometimes arteries become abnormally dilated, leading to aneurysms that may rupture.

Just what causes the initial inflammation in Takayasu’s arteritis isn’t known. It’s likely that Takayasu’s arteritis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system malfunctions and attacks own arteries as if they were foreign substances. The disease may be triggered by a virus or other infection.

Takayasu’s arteritis Symptoms

Symptoms vary depending on which arteries have become narrow. As with many other inflammatory diseases, patients with Takayasu’s arteritis often feel ill with “flu-like” symptoms before the disease is treated. Symptoms include:

  • Pain in the hand or lower leg with use (claudication), often with absent pulse or abnormally reduced blood pressure
  • Abdominal pain especially after eating
  • Chest pain with activity
  • Dizziness
  • Headache due to very high blood pressure (caused by narrowing of an artery supplying a kidney)
  • Muscle and joint pain, fatigue, fever

Takayasu’s arteritis Complications

Even with treatment, damage to the aorta may be permanent. Repeated swelling and healing of arteries can lead to complications. Therefore, it is important to follow up with your doctor on a regular basis. Complications can include:

  • Hardening and narrowing of the blood vessels
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart valve disorder (eg, aortic valve damage)
  • Heart failure
  • Aortic aneurysm
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA), a “mini-stroke” that doesn’t cause permanent damage but serves as a warning sign
  • Stroke
  • Heart attack
  • Pulmonary artery problems

Pregnancy: Successful pregnancies are possible for patients with TAK. If you are pregnant, or planning to become pregnant, talk to your doctor about potential effects of the disease and treatments.

Diagnosis and test

Blood Tests: There is no blood test that can be used to definitively confirm the diagnosis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) can help measure activity of the illness and your response to treatment.

Imaging: Imaging studies are useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of TA. Their use may allow diagnosis before arterial damage is severe. However, none of them are 100 per cent accurate.

An abnormal aortic arch in a patient with Takayasu’s arteritis

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to aid diagnosis and assess the extent of TA. The scan does not involve radiation and the picture of the arteries can be enhanced by using a contrast medium (that only rarely causes an allergic reaction).

MRI is a safe means by which to monitor the progress of disease and response to treatment. The main drawbacks are that the scanner is very noisy and rather claustrophobic.

Ultrasound – Doppler ultrasound (ultrasound scan): uses a probe which is passed over the carotid arteries in the neck. This allows assessment of blood flow and can detect and monitor the arterial wall and the degree of narrowing.

Positron emission tomography (PET scanning): requires the patient to be injected with radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose. PET scans are particularly good at detecting inflammation in the arterial wall and are often used in combination with CT scanning (CT-PET). PET may identify early active disease and may on occasion help to distinguish active disease (which needs further treatment) from scarring resulting from previous inflammation.

Computed tomography (CT) angiography: Contrast-enhanced CT angiography is useful for the diagnosis of TA and can help identify the extent of damage to the arteries. Unlike MRI/MRA and Doppler US, CT angiography does involve radiation.

Treatment and medications

A main goal of treatment is to reduce damage to your arteries. This is done by taking medicine that reduces inflammation. You may be given medicine such as:

Glucocorticoid medicine: Prednisone is a glucocorticoid medicine that can help treat Takayasu arteritis. Taking this for a long time can damage your bones. Taking calcium and vitamin D supplements may help prevent this damage. This medicine doesn’t work for all people.

Immunosuppressant medicine: This may be given if prednisone doesn’t work for you, or stops working. This medicine suppresses the immune system and helps prevent the inflammation. The medicines include methotrexate and azathioprine. These medicines don’t work for all people.

Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF): Etanercept and infliximab are 2 examples of anti-TNF medicine.


Your healthcare provider will need to watch the health of your large arteries on a regular basis. You will have blood tests and imaging tests such as MRA or CTA.

If 1 of your arteries becomes very narrow, you may need surgery (called revascularization) to repair it. This surgery can be done with angioplasty or a bypass graft:

  • Angioplasty: The artery is made wider.
  • Bypass graft: The blood flow is sent around the blocked part of the artery by attaching part of another blood vessel around it.

Prevention of Takayasu’s arteritis

As the precise etiology of Takayasu arteritis and causes of flare-ups in disease activity are unknown, there are no known specific preventive actions. Management of hypertension is important to prevent further vascular damage.

  • Attention to osteoporosis screening and management is crucial, given the need for glucocorticoid therapy.
  • Patients require influenza and pneumococcal immunizations annually.
  • Use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is important, especially when the prednisone dose is more than 20 mg daily.
  • Atherosclerotic vascular disease can further complicate the vascular damage caused by Takayasu arteritis; thus, control of other risk factors is important.

Whiplash injury is an injury to the soft tissues of the neck caused by forced flexion followed by hyperextension of the neck.


Whiplash injury is an injury to the soft tissues of the neck caused by forced flexion followed by hyperextension of the neck. Muscles, tendons, and ligaments that surround the bones of the neck are stretched beyond their limits in whiplash injuries. This type of sudden stretching often results in pain. In rare instances, whiplash injuries can lead to cervical disc herniation’s if the person had previously degenerative changes in their neck. These injuries are often caused by motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, or falling from a height.  Symptoms often subside after a few weeks of recovery and non-surgical management.

Types of Whiplash Injury

There are four major types of whiplash injury

Muscle Injury

The motion of your head snapping backwards stretches your muscles farther than they would ordinarily go. This extreme stretch can lead to tenderness or even swelling in the muscles of the neck and shoulders.

Nerve Injury

When your muscles stretch, your nerves stretch too. “Pinched” nerves and other nerve damage is more likely to occur if your head was turned during the impact.  It can also occur if your headrest was improperly positioned, of poor quality, or absent.

Joint Injury

Joints in your cervical vertebrae allow you to move your neck. These joints allow the bones to move smoothly over one another.  Injury to these joints can cause stiffness and pain. The pain may be in the area of the affected joint, but it can also transfer into other areas of the body such as the shoulders and arms.

Disc Injury

Discs act as “shock absorbers” in between your vertebrae. They also prevent the vertebrae from rubbing one another and causing wear. Discs are also where your sensitive nerves enter and exit the spinal cord. Whiplash injuries can damage these discs. They can bulge, herniate or even rupture.  Without the protection of a healthy disc, painful nerve irritation can follow.

Risk factors

Risk factors for whiplash include:

  • Age younger than 5 years
  • Driving or riding in automobiles
  • Participating in contact sports

Reducing your risk of whiplash

Ways to reduce your risk of experiencing whiplash include:

  • Always wearing a seat belt when riding in a car
  • Buckling infants and children into age-appropriate car seats
  • Properly adjusting your vehicle’s headrest to reduce the backwards whipping motion that occurs when your vehicle is rear-ended

If you suspect a whiplash injury, you should seek prompt medical attention to rule out more serious injury like a broken neck (cervical fracture) or brain injury. Infants and toddlers should always be evaluated for any suspected case of whiplash.

Causes of Whiplash Injury

Whiplash typically occurs when your head is forcefully and quickly thrown backward and then forward. This motion can injure bones in the spine, disks between the bones, ligaments, muscles, nerves and other tissues of the neck.

A whiplash injury may result from:

  • Auto accidents: Rear-end collisions are major causes of whiplash.
  • Physical abuse or assault: Whiplash can occur if you are punched or shaken. It’s one of the injuries seen in shaken baby syndrome.
  • Amusement park rides, such as a roller coaster, which can jerk your head quickly backward and forward
  • Contact sports: Football tackles and other sports-related collisions can sometimes cause whiplash.

Symptoms of Whiplash Injury

Sometimes there are no symptoms of whiplash, but sometimes the symptoms can be severe.

Pain from a whiplash injury often begins 6 to 12 hours after the injury. Many people feel uncomfortable on the day of the injury or accident and find that pain, swelling and bruising increase over the following days.

Common symptoms of whiplash include:

  • Neck pain and stiffness
  • Swelling and tenderness in the neck
  • Temporary loss of movement, or reduced movement, in the neck
  • Headaches
  • Muscle spasms
  • Pain in the shoulders or arms
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Pins and needles, numbness or pain in the arms and hands
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Difficulties swallowing
  • Blurred vision
  • Vertigo (a feeling you are moving or spinning) and dizziness
  • Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)

The symptoms often greatly improve or disappear within a few days to weeks. It may take longer for symptoms to completely disappear and some people experience some pain and neck stiffness for months after a whiplash injury.

Whiplash Injury Complications

Whiplash injuries can cause a number of other, complex related problems such as:

Chronic Whiplash: Most patients with whiplash make a full recovery in a matter of weeks or months with proper treatment. But certain individuals with more serious damage can develop chronic whiplash with symptoms that remain for years. Women are frequently more seriously injured by whiplash because of the difference in muscular bulk and bone structures.

Concussion: The impact that causes whiplash can sometimes cause a concussion as well. It is important to see a physician after your accident to assess the damage. If you are confused, nauseous, dizzy, or excessively sleepy after the accident seek medical attention immediately.

Joint Dysfunction: One of the spinal or limb joints may lose its normal resilience or shock absorption as a result of the whiplash. This could lead to pain and restricted movement.

Disc Herniation: A whiplash injury may damage the discs between the vertebrae, causing a herniated disc. This condition may cause sharp, shooting pain down an arm as well as numbness, tingling and weakness.

Faulty Movement Patterns: As a result of a barrage of intense pain signals from the whiplash injury, the nervous system may change the way it controls muscle function, affecting one’s ability to coordinate movements.

Diagnosis and test

Your doctor will ask questions about the event and your symptoms. You also may be asked questions that help your doctor understand how severe your symptoms are and how often they occur. Your doctor will also want to know how well you can perform normal everyday tasks.


During the exam your doctor will need to touch and move your head, neck and arms. You will be asked to move and perform simple tasks so that your doctor can check the:

  • Range of motion in your neck and shoulders
  • Degree of motion that causes pain or an increase in pain
  • Tenderness in your neck, shoulders or back
  • Reflexes, strength and sensation in your limbs

Imaging tests

A whiplash injury isn’t apparent on imaging tests. But your doctor will likely order one or more imaging tests to rule out other conditions that could be making your neck pain worse. Imaging tests include:

X-rays: Fractures, dislocations or arthritis can be identified by X-rays of the neck taken from many angles.

Computerized tomography (CT): This special type of X-ray can produce cross-sectional images of bone and show possible bone damage.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This imaging test uses radio waves and a magnetic field to produce detailed 3D images. In addition to bone injuries, MRI scans can detect some soft tissue injuries, such as damage to the spinal cord, disks or ligaments.

Treatment and medications

Treatment focuses on alleviating pain and stiffness in the neck, as well as healing the damage to muscles, ligaments, and tendons.

Self-Care for Whiplash

If whiplash symptoms are mild to moderate, some self-care options typically include:

Rest: While it is good to stay active if possible, it also makes sense to take things easier the first few days. If a certain motion or activity exacerbates the neck pain, then avoid or limit that movement until the neck has more time to heal.

Ice or heat: In the first couple days following a whiplash injury, applying ice can reduce pain and swelling in the neck. During this time window, the ice or cold packs can temporarily close small blood vessels and prevent a worsening of the swelling. Then ice or heat can be applied alternately a few days after the injury has occurred.

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications: Some common OTC pain relievers include acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as Advil, Aleve, and Motrin. Acetaminophen can block pain receptors, and NSAIDs reduce inflammation. Despite being readily available at the store, it is important to carefully read the OTC label and follow its directions.

In the past, some doctors advised whiplash patients to wear a cervical collar to immobilize the neck in the beginning, but this advice oftentimes made the problem worse. Immobilization allowed the neck muscles to weaken and become more problematic for the cervical spine.

Medical Care for Whiplash

If whiplash pain or related symptoms are severe and/or do not seem to be going away, medical care should be sought. Some combination of the following treatments could be used:

Physical therapy: A treatment program run by a trained physical therapist or qualified health professional can help improve the neck’s strength and flexibility, which in some cases can relieve stress on the spine and reduce pain.

Prescription pain medications: If over-the-counter drugs have not successfully managed the pain, then prescription-strength medications, such as muscle relaxants and opioids, could be prescribed under the careful supervision of a physician.

Injections: In some cases, an injection is used to target a specific area. Some examples could be cervical epidural steroid injection (to reduce nerve and tissue inflammation from a disc herniation), cervical facet joint injection (to provide relief within the joint), and trigger point injection (to help an irritated muscle bundle).

Psychotherapy: If for any reason a person develops a psychological condition in the aftermath of a whiplash injury, such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder, a mental health professional can provide counseling to help work through, understand, and manage the issues. Medications could also be prescribed.

Manual manipulation: A chiropractor or other certified medical professional typically uses his or her hands to make manual adjustments to the spine in an effort to increase range of motion and reduce pain.

Acupuncture: Some people report benefits from acupuncture, which involves placing thin needles in various strategic parts of the body depending on the condition being treated. When done by a licensed acupuncturist, the treatment is safe and has little to no pain.

Massage therapy: This treatment can be combined with others, such as physical therapy or manual manipulation. A massage can reduce pain by soothing muscle tension and spasms, as well as increasing blood flow.

Radiofrequency neurotomy: This procedure targets specific nerves with heat to create a lesion that prevents the facet joint from sending pain signals to the brain.

How to prevent whiplash injury

Prevention is the most effective way to avoid whiplash.

  • Always using seat belts and drive motor vehicles with airbags. Proper adjustment of the car seat headrest can also help keep the neck from snapping backwards.
  • Always use the proper safety equipment when participating in sports.
  • Follow amusement park or carnival safety instructions on high-velocity rides, such as roller coasters.
  • Report suspected child abuse to authorities.
  • Monitor children’s activities to prevent falls or serious injuries.

Terrible: Girls murdered by their friends for money ritual after partying.

Unforgiveable act: It was a thing of sorrow, inhuman and agony as young girls were murdered by their male friends for money ritual in a hotel apartment.

Terrible act: The Nigeria security department need to bring this vampires to book for this evil act.


The Nigeria police said 3 Chinese nationals have been arrested over an illegal mining in Azam village, near Nasarawa State.

The Nigeria Police Abuja Command has said, 21 illegal miners, including a community leader, 3 Chinese nationals have been arrested over an illegal mining in Azam village, near Nasarawa State.

A statement released on Tuesday by Nigeria police and forwarded to one world news line by the FCT Police Public Relations Officer, DSP Josephine Adeh said the development was sequel to the decision of heads of the security agencies in the region to curb the menace of kidnapping, banditry and other criminal activities within the FCT and its neighbouring States, including, Kogi, Niger, Kaduna, Nasarawa, Benue and Plateau.

According to the police statement, the exercise which is code named operation Safe G-7 was aimed at embarking on a massive raid and cleanup operation in all mapped out hideouts, camps and areas serving as refuges to criminal elements.

The PPRO revealed that the operation Safe G-7 on Tuesday, day two of the exercise, storm the Azam village upon actionable intelligence and discovered the illegal mining site.

She further stated that the illegal gold miners who had established relationship with bandits and kidnappers in the forest, engaged the security agents in a gun duel prior to their arrest.

According to her, items recovered from the suspects include, refined and unrefined gold, two gold weigh scales, criminal charms, seventeen mobile phones, Four motorcycles, Two dane guns, shovels, cutlasses, two pumping machines, one generator, substances suspected to be Cannabis, and other forms of hard drugs.

The statement reads in part, The exercise is code named operation “Safe G-7” and is intending to further promote confidence building and take the fight to the miscreants in their hideout at the various boundaries between the FCT and the said contingents states, so as to enhance safety and security within and around the states.

The continuation of yesterday’s operation in Matte, Kwali area council, to reclaim the village which was recently invaded by suspected bandits, was successfully and immediately followed up with deployments to provide the needed security going forward.

Following the above, Today Tuesday 4th January 2022, the JTF in compliance with the G-7 mandates on day two of their operation, continued the patrol of villages sharing boundaries with Nassarawa state.

The team upon the receipt of actionable intelligence , stormed a camp at Azam village, where an illegal mining site of about 40 minutes walking distance from the said village was discovered.

The miners who were said to have established a symbiotic relationship with bandits/ Kidnappers engaged the team In a gun duel and were forced to retreat, subsequently over powered by the superior fire power of the JTF and arrested.

The team recorded the successful arrest of about 21 illegal miners on the sites including foreign nationals.

Majority amongst the arrested suspects were from the various bordering states, confessing to have enjoyed unfiltered cooperation with the head of the local community who was immediately taken into custody alongside the arrested suspects.

The police spokesperson noted that the three male Chinese national suspects arrested in connection to the offense would be officially handed over to the Nigeria Immigration Service, with a view of establishing their immigration status in Nigeria.

She added that the two suspects linked with the possession of the drugs will be handed over to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency, NDLEA as investigation into the matter begins.

The Commisioner of Police FCT Command, CP Babaji Sunday psc. while registering the commands unflinching commitment to the crusade against crime and criminality in the state, urges residents to not relent in cooperating with the Police as touching the rendition of prompt and accurate information relevant in supporting the command’s anti criminality crusade.

The command implores residents to report all suspicious movements, emergencies or distresses through the following lines: 08032003913, 08061581938, 07057337653 and 08028940883.