A school headmaster have been nabbed by Kano police command for kidnap and murder of 5years old pupil.

Few weeks ago, parent of a young girl identified as Hanifa reported to police in Kano about their daughter who disappeared after going to school.

Few days later, the parent were contacted and informed that the young girl was kidnapped and that a sum of 6 million Naira has to be paid before they secure her release.

According to unconfirmed report, the parent were able to gather sum of 3 million Naira and sent to the kidnappers.

After police investigation, headmaster of the school were Hanifa was a student was arrested and he informed the police that he kidnapped her and killed her after he notice that he is going to be exposed when he release her.

Police public relations officer in Kano, SP Haruna Kiyawa confirmed the incidence and disclose that the kidnapped is currently in their custody and will be taken to court soon.


Nigeria activist Aisha Yesufu raises alarm over alleged checkpoint by Terrorist on Borno high way.

Following the happenings in the country It was recently reported that the members of the dreaded Boko Haram terrorist group are now collecting tax from travellers in Borno State. According to report, the members of the terrorist group mounted checkpoints on Borno Highways.

This particular incident caused several Nigerians to react differently.

In regards to the issues, human rights activist, Aisha Yesufu decided to speak out.

While reacting, she made it known that the fact that the travelers feel safe to pass says a lot about the failure of the government.

This is really a sad one for our dear country Nigeria.
How many governments do we have in Nigeria as it stands now?

I really don’t see any reason why a terrorist group should be allowed to operate freely and also collect tax from Nigerians.

Now is the right time for the federal government to act, because tomorrow might be too late for all of us.


Terrorist invade community in Zamfara state.

According to a report made available to oneworld, Terrorist allegedly invaded a community and abducted some people and N5 million was paid as ransom but they refused to release the captives instead they demanded two brand new motorbikes again.

As the negotiations were going on, the armed men returned and kidnapped eight more residents and they are yet to demand ransom.

We have about 13 people with the bandits and we implore authorities to rescue them, he said.

He explained that a businessman, Alhaji Hadi Babban Gebe, was abducted recently and the bandits demanded N35 million.

He added that they killed the captive even after collecting the ransom.

Many people are deserting the community because of the unending attacks despite the residents’ huge investment in security as many vigilantes were recruited.

We are demanding a permanent deployment of security forces to the community.

We have acknowledged the efforts of both state and federal government in tackling security challenges, but the case of Nahuche community in Zamfara state have call for serious attention otherwise the whole community will be deserted in near future, he warned.

The spokesperson to the state police command, SP Muhammad Shehu, could not be reached for comments at the time of filing this report.


From the Darkness, There Will be (More) Light

While the shortest amount of daylight is on the Winter solstice, December 21st, every day after that until the Summer solstice on June 21st the amount of daylight increases.

From the darkness, there will be more light.


Gorham’s Disease, also known by the name of Disappearing Bone Disease.


Gorham’s Disease, also known by the name of Disappearing Bone Disease, is an extremely uncommon medical condition of the skeletal system which does not have a specific etiology in which there is an uncontrolled proliferation of lymphatic channels within the bone causing resorption and replacement of bone fibrosis. Gorham’s Disease or Disappearing Bone Disease does not have any clear cut treatment and only treatments conducted are clinical trials which mixed results.

Anteroposterior radiograph of the pelvis in a patient with Gorham’s disease


Gorham’s disease is extremely rare and may occur at any age, though it is most often recognized in children and young adults. It strikes males and females of all races and exhibits no inheritance pattern. The medical literature contains case reports from every continent.

Because it is so rare, and commonly misdiagnosed, exactly how many people are affected by this disease is not known. The literature frequently cites that fewer than 200 cases have been reported, though a consensus is building that many more cases occur around the world that have been reported.

Risk factors

  • The risk factors for the development of Gorham-Stout Disease are not clearly known
  • It has been suggested that injury or trauma may be a risk factor


  • The specific cause of Gorham’s disease remains unknown. Bone mass and strength are obtained and maintained through a process of bone destruction and replacement that occurs at the cellular level throughout a person’s life.
  • Cells called osteoclasts to secrete enzymes that dissolve old bone, allowing another type of cells called osteoblasts to form new bone. Except in growing bone, the rate of breakdown equals the rate of building, thereby maintaining bone mass. In Gorham’s disease, that process is disrupted.
  • Gorham and Stout found that vascular anomalies always occupied space that normally would be filled with new bone and speculated that the presence of angiomatosis may lead to chemical changes in the bone.
  • Gorham and others speculated that such a change in the bone chemistry might cause an imbalance in the rate of osteoclast to osteoblast activity such that more bone is dissolved than is replaced.
  • The Gorham-Stout syndrome may be, essentially, a monocentric bone disease with a focally increased bone resorption due to an increased number of paracrine or autocrine stimulated hyperactive osteoclasts. The resorbed bone is replaced by a markedly vascularized fibrous tissue.


Symptoms of Gorham’s disease may develop quickly, requiring aggressive treatment, but may progress more slowly over time, with periods of remission or reversal with treatment. In some individuals, the disease may not cause any symptoms.

Typically, Gorham’s disease first presents as swelling and pain with no obvious cause. Some people are diagnosed after a fracture occurs, with radiography showing bone loss.

Symptoms of Gorham’s disease can include:

  • Acute onset of localized pain and swelling
  • Reduced range of motion and generalized weakness
  • Increased risk of fracture

Difficulty breathing and chest pain may be present if the disease is present in the ribs.

When Gorham’s disease affects the maxillofacial (jaw) bones, symptoms can include jaw pain, loose teeth, fractures, and facial deformity

Gorham disease of the mandible

Some people with Gorham’s disease may develop pleural effusion, a condition where there is ‘water on the lungs’ due to the build-up of excess fluid between the pleura or thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity. Because the pleura help to lubricate and are important for healthy respiratory function, Gorham’s disease can lead to respiratory distress (i.e. breathing problems) and even respiratory failure.

Gorham disease of craniofacial

Gorham’s disease of skull base


Complications that may arise in individuals with Gorham-Stout Disease may include:

  • Pathological fracture- A medical condition resulting in broken bones, due to bone weaknesses
  • Pleural effusion- Accumulation of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs
  • Pericardial effusion- Accumulation of excess fluid between the pericardium (lining of the heart) and the heart
  • Chylous ascites- The leakage of chyle fluid into the abdominal cavity from the duct in the lymphatic system
  • Hemangioma- The formation of non-cancerous tumors caused by the formation of new blood vessels
  • Bone lysis, or the destruction of bone due to removal or loss of calcium
  • Restricted movement
  • Neurological problems with spinal cord involvement
  • Disfigurement
  • Distress and depression

Diagnosis and test

There is no one test that can positively diagnose Gorham-Stout disease. Your child’s physician will conduct a thorough medical exam and ask questions to create a detailed medical history.

Your child’s physician may also recommend one or more of the following tests:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • CT scan
  • Biopsy

MRI or CT scans of a patient with Gorham-Stout will show bone that has disappeared, appears to have holes in it or looks hollow.


Your child’s specific treatment plan depends on several factors, including the part of the body affected, severity and progression of the disease and related complications.


Anti-vascular and immunosuppressant medications have proven effective for slowing and even reversing the damaging effects of Gorham-Stout. Boston Children’s offers a clinical using these medications, which target the lymphatic vessels that grow abnormally and disrupt the body’s normal bone regeneration process:

Sirolimus: This oral medication suppresses the immune system and targets lymphatic vessel formation. Also known as rapamycin, it has been found to effectively slow the progression of Gorham-Stout, reduce symptoms and complications and generally stabilize the disease.

Interferon alfa-2b: This medication inhibits the formation of lymphatic vessels and improves symptoms.

Bisphosphonates: This is a class of medications designed for osteoporosis that work to slow bone loss and can help to stabilize Gorham-Stout disease.


Surgery alone cannot cure Gorham-Stout. However, your child’s physician may recommend a surgical procedure to stabilize or remove affected bone or to treat symptoms and complications related to the disease. Your child may need to take a course of medication in conjunction with or before surgery to successfully stabilize the disease. Surgical outcomes are improved when the disease is under control at the time of surgery.

  • Surgical recommendations may include:
  • Spinal reconstruction or spinal fusion surgery to stabilize affected vertebrae.
  • Bone graft surgery, which in some cases can stimulate the formation of new bone.

Surgical removal of affected bone, which may be replaced by the bone graft surgery above or with an artificial, or prosthetic, bone implant.

Radiation therapy

Your child’s physician may recommend radiation to treat pain and other symptoms of Gorham-Stout. Radiation is also an effective treatment for complications of the disease, such as chylothorax, a leakage of lymphatic fluid into the chest.

However, due to delayed side effects of radiation therapy, it isn’t recommended as first-line therapy.


The course of Gorham’s disease varies among affected people. The rate of progression and long-term outlook (prognosis) can be hard to predict. The disease can stabilize after a number of years, go into spontaneous remission (improve without treatment), or be fatal. Recurrence can also occur. In most cases, bone resorption stops on its own after a variable number of years.

When just the limbs or pelvis are affected, there generally is no threat to life. However, pulmonary involvement with chylothorax (a type of pleural effusion) or spinal involvement (causing neurological complications) may mean a poor prognosis, and can even lead to death.


  • Presently, there are no effective methods or guideline available for the prevention of Gorham-Stout Disease
  • Active research is currently being conducted to explore the possibilities for treatment and prevention of disorders such as GSD
  • Regular medical screening at periodic intervals with tests and physical examinations are strongly recommended

Hydrosalpinx or Blocked Fallopian Tubes is the blockage of a woman’s fallopian tube caused by a fluid buildup and dilation of the tube at its end.


Hydrosalpinx or Blocked Fallopian Tubes is the blockage of a woman’s fallopian tube caused by a fluid buildup and dilation of the tube at its end. Most often it occurs at the fimbrial end of the tube next to the ovary, but it can also occur at the other end of the tube that attaches to the uterus. The term hydrosalpinx comes from Greek, with hydro meaning water and salpinx meaning tube.

Blocked fallopian tubes are one form of tubal factor infertility. When the fallopian tube is blocked, the cells inside the tube secret fluid that can’t escape, dilating the tube. This prevents fertilization – and thus pregnancy – by blocking an ovulated egg from moving from the ovary to the fallopian tube for fertilization by the sperm. If an ovulated egg is somehow able to connect with a sperm for fertilization, the hydrosalpinx would still likely block the resulting embryo from traveling to the uterus for implantation and pregnancy. It can also potentially cause a dangerous ectopic pregnancy, in which the embryo implants outside the uterus, most often inside the fallopian tube, and results in a life-threatening situation.

Types of Blocked Fallopian Tubes

The types of blocked Fallopian tubes are normally categorized depending on the location of the tube affected. They are;

Midsegment tubal obstruction

This occurs in the ampullary and it normally results from tubal ligation damage. Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure to prevent future pregnancies. The procedure has its own risks, but many women who opt for it end up requiring a correction when they change their minds

Proximal Tubal Occlusion

This involves the Isthmus and normally results from infections after an abortion, miscarriage, PID, caesarean section and some birth control procedures can block the tubes

Distal Tubal Occlusion

This type affects the end part near the ovary and hydrosalpinx is the major cause of the blockage.

Risk factors

Damage to fallopian tubes can result in infertility without any obvious signs or symptoms. Your risk for having a hydrosalpinx or blocked tubes increases with each of the following:

  • Appendicitis
  • Endometriosis
  • Previous pelvic surgery
  • Sexually transmitted disease
  • Pelvic Adhesions

The diagnosis changes to hydrosalpinges when both tubes are damaged. If you have experienced trouble getting pregnant, or have pelvic pain and unusual vaginal discharge, Dr. Douglas will want to rule out the possibility of hydrosalpinx or hydrosalpinges.

Causes of Blocked Fallopian Tubes

The most common cause of blocked fallopian tubes is a pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is the result of a sexually transmitted disease, but not all pelvic infections are related to STDs. Also, even if PID is no longer present, a history of PID or pelvic infection increases the risk of blocked tubes.

Other potential causes of blocked fallopian tubes include:

  • Current or history of an STD infection, specifically chlamydia or gonorrhea
  • History of uterine infection caused by an abortion or miscarriage
  • History of a ruptured appendix
  • History of abdominal surgery
  • Previous ectopic pregnancy
  • Prior surgery involving the fallopian tubes
  • Endometriosis

Symptoms of Blocked Fallopian Tubes

Blocked fallopian tubes symptoms are very rare. The symptoms include

  • Strong to mild abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Painful periods
  • Strange looking or smelling vaginal discharge
  • Feeling pain while having sex or passing urine, but because many women ovulate, fallopian tube blockage can go ignored until a woman wants to get pregnant.


Surgery to open the fallopian tubes carries the same potential complications as any surgery. These include:

  • Infection
  • Creation of more scar tissue
  • Damage to organs
  • Bleeding

One risk of pregnancy after surgery is an ectopic pregnancy, meaning that a fertilized egg gets stuck outside of the womb, often in a fallopian tube. The egg will not develop, and there can be a risk to a woman’s health.

Diagnosis of Blocked Fallopian Tubes

There really are no outward signs that will let you know if you are suffering from blocked fallopian tubes. If you have ever suffered from the pelvic inflammatory disease, there is a 15% -50% chance that your tubes are blocked.

The primary indicator that there is a blockage is an inability to conceive. Fortunately, there are diagnostic tests that can detect any abnormalities or blockages if there is evidence of some type of blockage to the tubes. Here are details on how blocked fallopian tubes are diagnosed…

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

Hysterosalpingogram is an X-ray test, using a contrast dye to view any obstruction in the fallopian tubes. The dye is inserted through a thin tube that is placed up through the vagina, into the uterus. Filling the uterus with this dye will then spill into the fallopian tubes. X-rays are then taken to determine if there is an injury or abnormal shape of the uterus and fallopian tubes, including obstruction in the tubes. This test is the number one test performed to determine if there is a blockage in the fallopian tubes.


This test is similar to hysterosalpingogram because chromotubation includes dye being passed into the uterus and fallopian tubes as well. This test is performed during laparoscopy so that doctors can see the dye spilling from the fallopian tube. The dye used for this procedure cannot be seen on an X-ray, it is blue in color. This test is considered the most reliable way to determine fallopian tube blockage but does require surgery. It is not the initial test performed unless there is another reason to perform surgery such as chronic pelvic pain.


This is a non-invasive procedure where ultrasound imaging is used to determine if there are any abnormalities of the reproductive organs. This type of test is not always a reliable way to determine fallopian tube blockage since the tubes are so small and spillage of the fluid cannot always be seen on ultrasound. This test may help to determine hydrosalpinx or other issues such as uterine fibroids.

Treatment of Blocked Fallopian Tubes

For Single Tubal Blockage: This is not difficult to cure. It does not include complex process. Fertility specialists normally recommend powerful fertility drugs to patients to improve their probabilities of ovulating on whichever side the tube is open without blockage.

For Both Tubes Blockage: Here generally the fertility drugs are not satisfactory when both tubes are blocked. Here, laparoscopic surgery is the greatest desirable choice to overcome the problem. The chances of success depend on the age of the women if younger then better. Laparoscopic surgery either clears the blockage or splits out tissue that is affecting the issues.

Common laparoscopic procedures include:

  • Tubal ligation reversal involves surgically reopening, untying or reconnecting a woman’s fallopian tubes that have been intentionally tied off or closed from a tubal ligation. Tubal ligation reversal can enable a woman to become pregnant again and is generally performed through minimally invasive robotic surgery.
  • Salpingectomy is a surgery to address hydrosalpinx (a buildup of fluid in the fallopian tubes) by removing scar tissue around the tube or removing the damaged part of the tube that is causing the fluid buildup.
  • Tubal removal may also be the best option to treat infertility. Although removing a fallopian tube sounds drastic, the inflammation from a damaged tube is a constant irritation in the pelvic cavity that can interfere with fertility. By removing the damaged tube causing inflammation, there is a better chance of getting pregnant through the remaining healthy fallopian tube.
  • Adhesiolysis is the simultaneous use of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy to remove adhesions or blockages from the origin of the fallopian tube, where it exits the uterus. A fertility surgeon inserts imaging die into the woman’s fallopian tubes to visualize the blockage and then taps the blockage away from the end of the tube using a wire guide through a slender tube.

IVF: IVF is the most effective modality treatment for blocked fallopian tubes and frequently the last option for patients who wish to get over this sickness and become pregnant

Prevention of Blocked Fallopian Tubes

Preventive measures that you could take:

  • Avoid drinking and smoking.
  • Practice some meditation. This can help lower your stress levels.
  • Sign up for yoga classes, or do it at home. A few poses that can help boost the health of your reproductive organs are the butterfly pose and bridge pose.
  • Avoid excessive consumption of junk foods. Include foods like fresh fruits, green leafy vegetables, and coconut oils. These are rich in antioxidants. Citrus foods, eggs, mangoes, zucchini, and spinach are rich in carotenoids, which help your enzymes and circulation as well.
  • Increase your intake of Vitamin C – it helps ease out inflammation.
  • Use herbal tampons. These contain herbs like goldenseal and Dong Quai, which can help clear out your fallopian tubes.

Apert syndrome, also known as acrocephalosyndactyly.


Apert syndrome, also known as “acrocephalosyndactyly”. It is a genetic disorder in which certain skull bones fuse together prematurely, which is known as craniosynostosis. This early fusion of the skull prevents it from developing normally and causes the child to have an unusual head and face shape. Children with this condition may also have cognitive (thinking) impairments, webbed or fused fingers, and toes, or extra digits.

Pathophysiology of Apert Syndrome

FGFR2 is widely expressed in cartilage, osteoprogenitor cells, limb mesenchyme, skin, and the brain. The receptor is composed of three extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane portion, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase which work together to transmit signals from the extracellular environment to downstream intracellular pathways. Two missense mutations, Serine252Trp and Pro253Arg, are responsible for almost all cases of AS and lead to alterations in the linker region between immunoglobulin-like loop II and loop III of FGFR2.

Premature coronal suture closure in the prenatal and early infancy periods leads to restricted growth perpendicular to the suture, resulting in brachycephaly (decreased anterior-posterior dimension). There is generally an associated midline defect from the glabellar to the posterior fontanelle which allows for brain growth and cranial expansion laterally. The altered positioning of the sphenoid bone and midface leads to decreased orbital volume and its related manifestations: ocular hypertelorism, proptosis, and down-slanting palpebral fissures. Maxillary hypoplasia causes severe narrowing of the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal space which may lead to severe sleep apnea.


Apert syndrome is a genetic condition caused by a mutation in a specific gene.

  • Apert syndrome is a birth abnormality caused by a mutation of the FGFR2 gene. This can occur in babies with no family history of the disorder, or they can inherit it from a parent.
  • The FGFR2 gene produces a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. This protein has many important roles in a fetus’ development, including a key role in signaling bone cell development.
  • When this gene mutation occurs, FGFR2 continues to signal for longer than usual, leading to early fusion of the skull, facial, feet, and hand bones.

Mutations in the FGFR2 gene can also cause several other related disorders, including:

  • Pfeiffer syndrome
  • Crouzon syndrome
  • Jackson-Weiss syndrome

Risk factors of Apert Syndrome

  • Increased paternal age has been noted to be a risk factor for Apert syndrome. Males and females are equally affected.
  • Most cases of AS are due to sporadic mutations which exhibit a paternal age effect, hence advanced paternal age confers an increased risk of having a child with AS.
  • If the parents are unaffected but have a child with AS, the risk to future is offspring is minimal.
  • AS is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, so if either parent has the disease, their offspring have a 50% risk of inheriting the mutation.


  • Craniosynostosis: early closure of growth plates of the skull, resulting in a change in the shape of the head and possible increased pressure on the brain
  • Midfacial hypoplasia: the decreased growth of the central face, causing sunken facial appearance and potentially dangerous breathing problems or sleep apnea
  • Syndactyly: fusion of the fingers and/or toes
  • Other features may include: crowded teeth, cleft palate, hearing loss, fused spinal bones, and severe acne

Complications of Apert Syndrome

  • Hand deformities can be quite severe and prevent your child from functioning normally.
  • Apert Syndrome can be associated with hydrocephalus, sleep apnea, eye exposure issues when the eyelids can’t close completely and airway compromise that may require the tracheostomy.
  • Patients with Apert syndrome may have associated intellectual or developmental disabilities.
  • Specific cognitive deficits that may impact children with craniosynostosis include impairments in domains such as visuospatial functioning, executive functioning, attention, memory, or general developmental delay.
  • Frequent ear infections: People with Apert syndrome have an increased risk of experiencing frequent ear infections.

Diagnosis and Test

Apert syndrome can be diagnosed based on the presence of the following features:

  • Turribrachycephalic skull shape (cone-shaped or towering skull) which is visibly apparent and can be confirmed by skull radiograph or head CT examination
  • Characteristic facial features including moderate-to-severe underdevelopment of the midface, bulging and wide-set eyes, “beaked” nose, underdeveloped jaw and shallow eye sockets
  • Variable hand and foot findings such as syndactyly of the fingers and toes and polydactyly

Molecular genetic testing can help to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment and Medications

Most children with Apert syndrome will require numerous operations in their adolescence and early adulthood. Your child may need surgeries to:

  • Reshape the skull
  • Improve the upper airway, which may be partly blocked
  • Correct eye problems
  • Address dental problems
  • Separate webbed fingers or toes

Our doctors have significant expertise in:

  • Minimally invasive techniques and helmet therapy to reduce your child’s skull shape deformity
  • Midfacial advancement (also known as Le Fort III procedures) to bring the middle part of your child’s face forward, opening up the airway and protecting the prominent eyes
  • Treating airway obstruction
  • Jaw surgery, combined with orthodontic therapy, to help correct the bite and improve jaw appearance and function
  • Complex operations to separate and straighten fingers and toes

Endoscopic craniosynostosis repair. This minimally invasive procedure uses a small scope and leaves only small scars. After endoscopic craniosynostosis repair, your child will need to wear a helmet for several months. We will help you make all the arrangements for this. Learn more about post-surgical helmets.

Open craniosynostosis repair surgery. This classic surgical approach can be performed on children of any age. It involves a larger incision plus the use of plates to hold the bones in place. Our surgeons have performed thousands of open craniosynostosis repairs over more than 35 years.

Prevention of Apert Syndrome

  • There is currently no known method of prevention against Apert syndrome.
  • Individuals who have Apert syndrome may meet with genetic counselors to learn more about the risks of having children with the disorder. If one parent has Apert syndrome, there is a 50% chance with each birth that a child will inherit the condition. However, nearly all cases of Apert syndrome occur randomly and are not inherited.
  • Prenatal screening and diagnostic tests may also be performed to determine if a mother’s fetus has Apert syndrome. However, there are serious risks associated with prenatal testing, including miscarriage. Therefore, patients should discuss the potential health risks and benefits before making any health-related decisions.

The Nigeria former head of state, said Nigeria is at the cross road.

According to report made available to our news channel, it was learnt that the Nigeria Former Head of State, General Abdulsalami Abubakar (rtd), Thursday, said Nigeria is at the cross road

He then cautioned politicians to guild thier words and deeds ahead of the 2023 general elections.

Abubakar, who spoke in Abuja at the ongoing 19th Daily Trust Dialogue, also cautioned that 2022 is very crucial as the year preceeding the 2023 general elections and urged Nigerians to embrace peace at all cost.

While lamenting that the insecurity had shifted from the North East to the North West, said the proliferation of arms and poverty were responsible for the ugly development.

The former head of state, who is the chairman of the occasion, also called on the politicians to show statesmanship and restraint in thier words and deeds in order not to worsen the security situation of the country.


Lissencephaly, which literally means “smooth brain, is a rare, gene-linked brain malformation.

Lissencephaly, which literally means “smooth brain,” is a rare, gene-linked brain malformation characterized by the absence of normal convolutions (folds) in the cerebral cortex and an abnormally small head (microcephaly). In the usual condition of lissencephaly, children usually have a normal-sized head at birth.  In children with reduced head size at birth, the condition microlissencephaly is typically diagnosed.
Lissencephaly is caused by defective neuronal migration during embryonic development,  the process in which nerve cells move from their place of origin to their permanent location within the cerebral cortex gray matter. Symptoms of the disorder may include unusual facial appearance, difficulty swallowing, failure to thrive, muscle spasms, seizures, and severe psychomotor retardation. Hands, fingers, or toes may be deformed.

Comparative image of a brain showing lissencephaly (left) and normal brain (right)
Lissencephaly may be associated with other diseases including isolated lissencephaly sequence, Miller-Dieker syndrome, and Walker-Warburg syndrome.

  Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish between these conditions clinically so consultation with national experts is recommended to help ensure correct diagnosis and possible molecular testing.

Types of Lissencephaly
There are two major types:
Classical lissencephaly (also known as type 1 lissencephaly), with reduced gyration and cerebral cortical thickening, this may occur in isolation or with other congenital abnormalities, for example as part of a 17p microdeletion – Miller-Dieker syndrome
Cobblestone lissencephaly (also known as type 2 lissencephaly), with reduced gyration and a nodular appearance to the cortex, is associated with structural abnormalities of the cerebellum and brainstem, and commonly occurs with eye and muscle involvement – Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, muscle-eye-brain disease, and Walker-Warburg syndrome
Lissencephaly may co-occur with any of a large number of other structural brain abnormalities, such as abnormality in ventricular appearance, of the corpus callosum, of the septum pellucidum and hypoplasia of the pyramidal tracts
Causes of Lissencephaly

Lissencephaly is often considered a genetic condition, though sometimes a viral infection or poor blood flow to the fetus may cause it. Scientists have identified malformations in several genes as contributors to lissencephaly. But research into these genes is ongoing. And mutations in these genes cause varying levels of the disorder.

It develops when a fetus is 12 to 14 weeks old. During this time nerve cells begin to move to other areas of the brain as it develops. But for fetuses with lissencephaly, the nerve cells don’t move.

The condition can occur on its own. But it’s also associated with genetic conditions such as Miller-Dieker syndrome and Walker-Warburg syndrome.

There is a wide range of symptoms that may occur in people diagnosed with lissencephaly. Some children have few if any of these symptoms and others may have many. The severity of symptoms can also vary widely. Possible symptoms of lissencephaly include:

Failure to thrive: Failure to thrive is a condition often seen in newborns in which growth is not occurring as expected.

It can have many causes
Intellectual impairments: Intelligence can range from near normal to profound impairments.

A seizure disorder: A seizure disorder occurs in around 80 percent of children with the condition
Difficulty swallowing and eating
Difficulty controlling his/her muscles (ataxia)
Initially reduced muscle tone (hypotonia) followed by stiffness or spasticity of arms and legs
Unusual facial appearance with a small jaw, high forehead, and indentation of the temples.

Abnormalities of the ears and upturned nasal openings may also be noted
Abnormalities of the fingers and toes, including extra digits (polydactyly)
Developmental delays can range from mild to severe
A smaller than normal head size (microcephaly)

The trouble with breathing and swallowing and seizures are common causes of death among people who have lissencephaly.

Parents should remember every case is different. Although some children with the condition don’t live past age 10, others go on to become adults. You should seek out a specialist to give you more information about your child’s condition and support services.

Diagnosis and test
In case if there is a family history of Lissencephaly in any of the parents then they can go for an ultrasound examination at about 20 weeks of pregnancy to check whether the fetus has Lissencephaly or not.

The condition is normally diagnosed during birth or within the first few months of life with the help of imaging tests, such as:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
Computed tomography (CT) scan
Ultrasound scan
Apart from this, for confirmative diagnosing Lissencephaly, the treating physician after observing the symptoms may recommend advanced imaging of the brain in the form of CT or MRI scans to look for areas where folding has not taken place of the brain and confirm the diagnosis and degree of severity of Lissencephaly.

The majority of children suffer from grade III which is the mild form of Lissencephaly.

Lissencephaly treatment
The treatment of lissencephaly type 1 is directed toward the specific symptoms that are apparent in each individual. Treatment may require the coordinated efforts of a team of specialists.
Pediatricians, neurologists, and other health care professionals may need to systematically and comprehensively plan an affected child’s treatment.

Therapies for individuals with lissencephaly type 1 are symptomatic and supportive. Treatment may include measures to improve the intake of nutrients in infants with feeding difficulties; the administration of anticonvulsant drugs to help prevent, reduce, or control seizures; and/or other measures.

Genetic counseling is recommended for families of affected children.

The outcome for this condition depends on the extent of brain malformation. Numerous patients show no major signs of development beyond 3 to 5-months after birth.

Some individuals may display near-normal intelligence and development. Life expectancy for the patients of this condition can vary greatly.

With proper medical treatment and care, many children can live up to their teen years. However, a lot of sufferers die before they reach 10 years of age.

Respiratory diseases are the principal causes of death associated with lissencephaly. Other factors causing death include severe seizures or aspiration of foods or fluids.