Hoarding disorder is an illness that makes people feel a very strong need to collect things.


Hoarding disorder is an illness that makes people feel a very strong need to collect things. They can’t bear to think about parting with their things. Over time, the collected items may take over the person’s house. The items may cover tables, beds, counters, and floors. Hallways and rooms including kitchens and bathrooms may get so cluttered that they can no longer be used or kept clean.

The collected items are often ordinary things like newspapers, plastic containers, or clothing. But different people collect all kinds of different things. And some people collect cats, dogs, or other animals. People with this illness may feel very ashamed or guilty about their behaviour. And yet the idea of getting rid of anything is very upsetting to them. It can be frustrating to be a family member or friend of someone who has this illness. But it’s important to remember that it is an illness.

Hoarding disorder is different from being a collector, even one who collects a lot of items. Collectors are proud of their collections. They are able to organize and display them. Their collections don’t get in the way of everyday life.


Hoarding disorder is thought to be present in 1.5% of the population with this figure increasing in older adults. Community surveys estimate the point prevalence of clinically significant hoarding in the United States and Europe to be approximately 2%-6%.

The disorder affects both males and females, but some studies have reported a significantly greater prevalence among males.

Types of hoarding disorder

There are a few different types of hoarding that people may experience. Some people may exhibit a specific type of hoarding, while others may experience a more general form.

Animal hoarding: Involves acquiring many animals as pets, often many more than the person can care for

Compulsive shopping: Involves a preoccupation with shopping and buying unneeded items

Object hoarding: Involves hoarding specific items such as paper, books, clothing, or even garbage

Risk factors

In some cases, hoarding is associated with self-neglect. People are more likely to have hoarding disorder if they:

  • Live alone
  • Are unmarried
  • Have had a deprived childhood, with either a lack of material objects or a poor relationship with other members of their family
  • Have a family history of hoarding
  • Grew up in a cluttered home and never learned to prioritize and sort items

Causes of hoarding disorder

No one knows exactly what causes hoarding.

It can be triggered by:

  • Difficult experiences and painful feelings
  • Perfectionism and worrying about making mistakes
  • Childhood experiences of losing or not having possessions, or not being cared for
  • Trauma and loss
  • Family history or habits
  • Other mental health problems.

If you hoard, you probably started doing so for good reasons. For example, you may have wanted to avoid wasting things, keep track of important information or be reminded of a significant memory or time.

If you hoard, you might:

  • Have very strong positive feelings whenever you get more items
  • Feel very upset or anxious at the thought of throwing or giving things away
  • Find it very hard to decide what to keep or get rid of.

Hoarding disorder symptoms

Someone who hoards may exhibit the following:

  • Inability to throw away possessions
  • Severe anxiety when attempting to discard items
  • Great difficulty categorizing or organizing possessions
  • Indecision about what to keep or where to put things
  • Distress, such as feeling overwhelmed or embarrassed by possessions
  • Suspicion of other people touching items
  • Obsessive thoughts and actions: fear of running out of an item or of needing it in the future; checking the trash for accidentally discarded objects
  • Functional impairments, including loss of living space, social isolation, family or marital discord, financial difficulties, health hazards


Hoarding disorder can cause a variety of complications, including:

  • Increased risk of falls
  • Injury or being trapped by shifting or falling items
  • Family conflicts
  • Loneliness and social isolation
  • Unsanitary conditions that pose a risk to health
  • A fire hazard
  • Poor work performance
  • Legal issues, such as eviction

Other mental health disorders

Many people with hoarding disorder also experience other mental health disorders, such as:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Diagnosis and test

To diagnose hoarding disorder, a doctor will ask about your collecting and saving habits. To confirm a diagnosis, the following symptoms must be present:

  • Ongoing difficulty getting rid of possessions whether they have value or not
  • Feelings of distress associated with discarding items
  • Living spaces so filled with possessions they are unusable

Treatment and medications

If it is a symptom of another illness, the first thing to do is to start treatment for that illness.

If there is no other illness, there are two main types of treatment for hoarding disorder: psychological therapy and medication. Some people need both, others get better with just psychological therapy.

Psychological therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most effective psychological treatment. It can help you to change the thoughts and feelings that drive you to hoard.

There are several stages:

  • Getting to trust your therapist. Things can be difficult to talk about, so it can take a little time to open up to someone new.
  • The therapist then helps you to understand what makes it difficult for you to throw things away.
  • You then agree to not hoard more items during the treatment. There is no point clearing things away if you replace them with others.
  • You and your therapist start clearing out items together. You will find that the longer you spend thinking about it, the more difficult it becomes.
  • The therapist helps you to look at your thoughts and feelings about possessions.

As hoarding has often been going on for years, treatment can take a long time. The aim is to use the 3 Rs – Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant medications which are used to help anxiety and obsessional problems. They also seem to help people who hoard. Improvement usually happens slowly over weeks or even months.

Research continues into other medications which might be helpful in hoarding disorder.

One group of drugs blocks the action of dopamine, a chemical in the brain. They can be used with SSRI medication if the SSRI alone does not seem to be helping enough.

Prevention of hoarding disorder

Because little is understood about what causes hoarding disorder, there’s no known way to prevent it. However, as with many mental health conditions, getting treatment at the first sign of a problem may help prevent hoarding from getting worse.

outgrowths of bone that develop along the edges of bones, often where two or more bones meet.


Bone spurs also called osteophytes, are outgrowths of bone that develop along the edges of bones, often where two or more bones meet. They can form in the back, hip, sole, or heel of the foot, spine, neck, shoulder, or knee. Most bone spurs are caused by tissue damage brought on by osteoarthritis. Many are silent, meaning they cause no symptoms and only detected by an x-ray or other test for another condition. Others cause problems and require treatment.

If a spur breaks off from the bone, it can linger in the joint or get stuck in the lining of the joint. Such wandering bone spurs are called loose bodies. A loose body can make it feel like you can’t move a joint. This “locking” can come and go.

Types of bone spurs

Bone spurs are sometimes called by their medical names, osteophytes, and enthesophytes. Experts suggest both types of bone spurs are a reaction to skeletal stress.

  • Osteophytes are typically found at the edge of a bone at a joint. They are considered to be the result of friction and stress on the bone and are often associated with osteoarthritis.
  • Enthesophytes are bone spurs that develop where a ligament or tendon insert into a bone. (The site of attachment of soft tissue into bone is called an enthesis.) Enthesophytes may develop because of tight ligaments and tendons rubbing against bone, a soft tissue injury, or an inflammatory disease.

People do not always make the distinction between osteophytes and enthesophytes; Enthesophytes may sometimes be called osteophytes.

Bone spurs risk factors

Certain factors and conditions may contribute to the formation of osteophyte. These include:

  • Increased age
  • Disc degeneration
  • Joint degeneration
  • Sports injury or other joint injury
  • Poor posture
  • Genetics
  • Congenital skeletal abnormalities

Causes of bone spurs

The most common cause is osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease. This is an age-related condition in which the cartilage within the joints at the ends of each bone, gradually wears away. Common causes of osteoarthritis include:

  • Repetitive movements or frequent stress on the spine which causes tears in the cartilage between the discs and can damage the spinal vertebrae.
  • The cartilage between the vertebrae and disc wears down and affects the spine’s motion
  • Thickening calcification of ligaments

Other causes of bone spurs include spondylosis, trauma, infection (Osteomyelitis), thinning disc, spinal stenosis (foraminal and within the spinal canal), facet joint eburnation (degeneration), facet arthropathy (facet joint arthritis), degenerative discs disease, forestier’s disease (ligament hardening in the spine), or ankylosing spondylitis.

Bone spur in the spine


The most common symptoms of bone spurs include:

  • Neck or back pain (eg, frequency and intensity varies)
  • Pain and other symptoms may radiate (travel) from the neck (cervical radiculopathy) or low back (lumbar radiculopathy).
  • Other symptoms may include: numbness, burning, and pins and needle sensations that may affect the shoulders, arms, hands, buttocks, legs or feet
  • Pain that eases with rest and worsens with activity
  • Muscle spasms
  • Cramping
  • Weakness

In severe cases, bone spurs may lead to loss of bowel or bladder control. This is a rare symptom that warrants emergency medical care.

Bone spur in the heel

Complications of bone spur

Bone spurs in the spine can cause conditions such as stenosis, nerve compression, and radiculopathy. Over time, the thickened ligament material calcifies and bone spurs develop. On your vertebrae, bone spurs can narrow the space that contains your spinal cord – a condition called stenosis. Stenosis most often occurs in the neck and lower back and imaging tests may show cervical bone spurs (neck) or lumbar bone spurs (lower back).

As stenosis occurs, as well as bone spurs, space where nerve roots exit the spine may occur causing nerve compression. The bone spurs can compress the spinal cord or its nerve roots and can cause radiculopathy, which is tingling, weakness, or numbness that travels down your arms or legs. The spurs cause pain when they touch against the nerves traveling along your spinal cord.

Diagnosis and test

After taking the patient’s medical history and performing a physical examination, physicians can rule out conditions that may have similar symptoms but different causes.

Tests that a doctor may order include:

Electroconductive tests: These show the degree and seriousness of the spinal nerve injury.

Computed tomography (CT) scans: A CT scan is similar to an MRI in that it provides diagnostic information about the internal structures of the spine.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans: MRIs are needed to visualize soft tissues like discs in the spine. This type of imaging is very safe and usually pain-free.

X-rays: It shows bones and the space between bones. They are of limited value, however, since they do not show muscles and ligaments.

Treatment and medications

If spinal bone spurs are determined to be the likely cause of back pain and other symptoms, there are a wide range of possible treatment options.

Nonsurgical Treatment for Bone Spurs

Most patients with mild or moderate nerve compression and irritation from bone spurs can manage their symptoms effectively without surgery. The goal of nonsurgical treatment is to stop the cycle of inflammation and pain.


Medication, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) and muscle relaxants may be recommended. Because of the risk of side effects, long-term use of medications should be approached with caution.

Short periods of rest

Activity may flare up inflammation in the joints. Short periods of rest can give the inflammation time to recede.

Physical therapy and exercise

Physical therapy, exercise, and manipulation (performed by chiropractors [DC], osteopaths [DO], and physical therapists [PT]), may alleviate back pain associated with bone spurs. These rehabilitation therapies attempt to restore flexibility and strength to the spine, improve posture and decrease nerve root compression.

Spinal manipulation

If the pain and inflammation caused by bone spurs are related to abnormal alignment and movement patterns in the spine, a spinal adjustment may help relieve symptoms. Chiropractors, osteopaths, and physical therapists use their hands or small instruments to apply pressure over the skin of vertebrae and manipulate the spine. The goal is to increase range of motion, reduce nerve irritability, and improve function. Spinal manipulation is not appropriate for everyone. A careful medical history, physical examination, and discussion of the risks and benefits of manipulation should occur prior to this type of treatment.

Weight loss

Losing excess weight can take pressure off the spine, reducing friction between the vertebrae’s facet joints and decreasing the likelihood of pain. Achieving an appropriate weight is especially effective in taking pressure off the lower back.

Surgical treatment

If a bone spur is causing pain that cannot be treated conservatively, your doctor may perform surgery to remove the bone spur. If you have another condition that is contributing to your spinal problem, such as osteoarthritis, your doctor may choose to remove the bone spur at the same time surgery is being performed to address the other problem.


There are no ways to prevent the development of bone spurs. However, you can take self-care steps at home to keep your bones and joints healthy and decrease your risk of injuries.

Exercise regularly: Regular exercise is the best thing you can do to maintain strong, healthy joints, muscles, and bones. Low-impact exercises like walking, swimming, bicycling, or yoga can help you stay active while reducing stress and pressure on your joints and soft tissues.

Maintain a healthy weight: Excess body weight places more stress and pressure on weight-bearing joints. Talk to your doctor about ways you can maintain a healthy, stable weight.

Wear supportive footwear: Reduce the risk of heel spurs by wearing shoes that fit correctly and provide good heel and arch support. Additionally, supportive shoes will reduce pressure on your knees, hips, and back.

Fifth disease is a mild viral infection caused by human parvovirus B19.


Fifth disease is a mild viral infection caused by human parvovirus B19. It’s more common in children than adults. It’s called fifth disease because it was fifth on a list of illnesses that caused rashes in children in the past. Fifth disease is sometimes called “slapped cheek disease.” The illness’s bright red rash on the face looks like the child has been slapped. About half of people get fifth disease sometime during childhood or their teens. Once you’ve had it, you are unlikely to be at risk of getting it again.


Parvovirus B19—which causes fifth disease—spreads through respiratory secretions, such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus, when an infected person coughs or sneezes. You are most contagious when it seems like you have “just a fever and/or cold” and before you get the rash or joint pain and swelling. After you get the rash you are not likely to be contagious, so it is usually safe for you or your child to go back to work or school.

People with fifth disease who have weakened immune systems may be contagious for a longer amount of time.

Parvovirus B19 can also spread through blood or blood products. A pregnant woman who is infected with parvovirus B19 can pass the virus to her baby.

Once you recover from fifth disease, you develop immunity that generally protects you from parvovirus B19 infection in the future.

What is the pathophysiology of Fifth Disease?

Human PV-B19, a member of the family Parvoviridae, is a heat-stable, single-stranded DNA virus. It is the only parvovirus known to cause disease in humans.

The development of erythema infectiosum in children is a normal response to infection by PV-B19. Acute infection in a host who is immunocompetent leads to a Th-1–mediated cellular immune response, with the production of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and subsequent formation of immune complexes. Clinical signs and symptoms of erythema infectiosum probably result from the deposition of the immune complexes in the skin and joints of individuals with this condition and not from the circulating virus. The incubation period is usually 7-10 days, but it can be 4-21 days. Extremely high viral loads are noted in patients with aplastic crisis, but low-level persistent polymerase chain reaction positivity in tissues is also common among adults in a variety of tissues.

Causes of Fifth Disease

Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and mouth when someone coughs or sneezes. About 20 percent of people who get the virus don’t have symptoms, but they can still pass the virus along to others.

Risk Factors

This problem is more common in children. Pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems are at high risk of severe illness.

Other things that may raise the risk are:

  • Contact with an infected person
  • Jobs that require close contact with infected people, such as healthcare workers and teachers
  • Exposure to contaminated blood or blood products

Fifth Disease Symptoms

The most recognized symptom of fifth disease is a sudden, bright red rash across the cheeks that looks as if the child has been slapped. You might also hear it called slapped-cheek disease. The disease is rare in infants and adults.

The rash typically appears a week to 10 days after symptoms similar to those of the common cold, such as:

  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Mild fever
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Muscle aches
  • Joint pain (more common in adults)

What are the complications of Fifth Disease?

Most people recover completely from fifth disease without any long-lasting problems. Sometimes, complications can occur, including:

  • Anemia: Sometimes the virus stops the body’s production of red blood cells, leading to anemia. This problem is temporary and usually not noticeable. However, anemia can be serious if you have a weakened immune system. You are most at risk for complications if you have sickle cell disease, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or have had an organ transplant.
  • Arthritis: A small number of children (10%) and a larger number of adults (around 80%) temporarily develop painful joints and swelling. These symptoms typically improve in a couple of weeks. However, 10% of adults develop chronic parvovirus-associated arthritis, or polyarthritis. Women are more at risk than men.

How does Fifth Disease affect pregnancy?

The virus can infect unborn babies through their mother’s blood. The virus doesn’t cause birth defects or developmental problems. If you’re pregnant and have been exposed to someone with fifth disease, contact your healthcare provider immediately.

If you have fifth disease while you’re pregnant, the virus can very rarely lead to:

  • Fetal anemia (low red blood cell count).
  • Hydrops fetalis (fluid buildup around organs).
  • Miscarriage (when pregnancy ends before the baby develops fully).
  • Stillbirth (when a baby dies before birth).

However, most pregnant mothers who are infected with this virus deliver normal, healthy babies.

Diagnosis of Fifth Disease

Signs and symptoms of erythema infectiosum tend to be easy to detect, so diagnosis is normally straightforward. It is sometimes confused with scarlet fever, but the rash is different.

Tests to confirm the presence of the virus are not generally ordered.

Around 50 percent of all adults are immune to parvovirus infections, probably because they experienced infection during childhood, even if it went unnoticed.

Blood tests

Sometimes a doctor may recommend a blood test to check for antibodies.

This may happen if the patient:

  • Is pregnant
  • Has a compromised immune system, due, for example, to HIV or AIDS
  • Has a chronic red blood cell disorder, such as sickle-cell anemia

Depending on the result, the following actions are possible:

Results show the patient is immune: no further action is required, as reinfection is not possible.

Results show a recent parvovirus infection: further tests may be ordered to find out whether any complications, for example, anemia, require treatment.

Results show a pregnant woman is infected: additional tests, including an ultrasound scan and further blood tests, will monitor the developing fetus for complications.

Treatment of Fifth Disease

In most cases, no treatment is required, but medications can help reduce symptoms.

The rash: treatment is not usually necessary.

Pruritis: antihistamines may help if there is severe itching of the skin.

Headache, fevers, and cold-like symptoms: the doctor may suggest Tylenol (paracetamol) or ibuprofen. Younger children can take painkillers in liquid form. It is important to check dosages and frequency of use with a qualified pharmacist, a doctor, or by reading the public information leaflet (PIL) in the package.

Joint pains and swelling: the doctor may advise rest and prescribe an anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen. In most cases, there are no long-term consequences, and the pain resolves within a few days or weeks.

Drink and rest: drinking plenty of fluids, especially water, and getting enough rest can ease symptoms and speed up recovery.

Severe anemia: this may require hospitalization and a blood transfusion.

Weakened immune system: patients may be hospitalized and antibodies provided through a blood transfusion.

Pregnancy: the doctor will carefully monitor the fetus. If there are signs of anemia, CHF, or edema, blood transfusions may be given. This will reduce the risk of miscarriage.

Can Fifth Disease be prevented or avoided?

There is no vaccine for fifth disease. You can prevent your child from getting it by helping him or her practice good hygiene habits. These include:

  • Washing hands often with soap and water.
  • Covering the mouth and nose with their elbow when coughing or sneezing.
  • Not touching the eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • Avoiding close contact with anyone who is sick.
  • Keeping them home when they are sick.

Pineal tumor is an abnormal growth in or near the pineal gland.


Pineal tumor is an abnormal growth in or near the pineal gland. Depending on the type of tumor, surgery may involve a craniotomy to remove it. The pineal gland, a tiny, pinecone-shaped area located in the midline of the brain behind the third ventricle, synthesizes and secretes the neurotransmitters melatonin, which plays the critical role of regulating the body’s circadian rhythm, and serotonin, a precursor to melatonin. Other functions of the pineal gland remain incompletely understood. This gland is composed of a variety of cells, such as glial cells, endothelial cells, sympathetic nerve cells, pineal parenchymal cells and germ cells. Given the diversity of cells, a wide variety of tumor types can arise in this region.


In Europe and North America, pineal tumors account for less than 1 percent of all primary brain tumors. Pineal tumors are more common in children aged 1 to 12 years where these constitute approximately 3 percent of brain tumors.

Worldwide, pineal tumors are most common in Asian countries, for reasons that are not known. This increased frequency is due largely to an increase in germ cell tumors (GCTs), which compose 70 to 80 percent of all pineal region tumors in Japan and Korea, for example. In the United States, the incidence of intracranial GCTs is highest in individuals with Asian/Pacific Island ancestry in the 10- to 29-year age group, suggesting that underlying genetic susceptibility may play a role in the etiology of these tumors.

Pineal tumors are substantially more common in males. In an analysis of 633 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database over a 32-year period, pineal tumors were three times more common in males than females. In those with GCTs, the male predominance was approximately 12:1.

Types of Pineal Tumor

Tumors of the pineal gland may be one of these types:

Pineocytoma: These are slow-growing (grade I or II). These tumors usually appear between the ages of 20 and 64. But they can happen to a person at any age. People with pineocytomas tend to have a good outcome.

Pineal parenchymal tumor: These are intermediate-grade (grade II or III). Pineal parenchymal tumors and papillary pineal tumors may happen at any age.

Papillary pineal tumor: These are intermediate-grade (grade II or III).

Pineoblastoma: These are very rare, aggressive, and fast-growing (grade IV). They’re almost always cancer. These tumors most often affect people under 20 years of age.

Mixed pineal tumor: These are a combination of slow- and fast-growing cell types

Risk factors

Individuals with inherited genes possess a higher risk for developing tumors like Li-Fraumeni syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau disorder, neurofibromatosis, and retinoblastoma. Individuals working at rubber and chemical industries can also be at risk for tumors. Previous radiation treatment for head and neck cancers makes it a risk factor for pineal tumors.

Causes of Pineal Tumor

The precise cause of most pineal region tumours is not yet understood.

However, people living with an inherited genetic disorder called bilateral retinoblastoma are more likely to develop a pineal region tumour called pineoblastoma than people without this condition.

Pineal Tumor symptoms

Pineal region tumours originate from deep within the centre of the brain, close to the third ventricle (one of the large fluid filled spaces). This means that patients often experience increased pressure inside the skull due to a build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a condition known as hydrocephalus.

Signs and symptoms of pineal region tumours may include:

  • Headaches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Unusual eye movements or difficulty controlling the eyes: in particular, a characteristic upward gaze palsy, known as Parinaud syndrome
  • Poor balance, for example whilst walking
  • Poor co-ordination (ataxia)
  • Disruption of sleep patterns
  • Seizures
  • Memory issues
  • Early puberty in children

Complications of Pineal Tumor

Complications may include a life-threatening increase in intracranial pressure, requiring emergency medical attention.

Surgical complication

The most common surgical complication was the new onset or the worsening of preoperative ocular movement disturbances.

Some common complications are extraocular movement dysfunction, ataxia, altered mental status as well as seizures, or hemiparesis. Some factors increased incidence of surgical complications include prior radiation treatment, severe preoperative neurologic symptoms, malignant tumor pathology, and invasive tumor characteristics.

Diagnosis and test

Your doctor will review your personal and family medical history. He or she will also ask about recent symptoms. You will have a physical exam, including a neurologic exam. Your doctor may test your reflexes and ask you to do simple things like touch your finger to your nose. Your doctor may shine a light in your eye to look for swelling of the optic nerve. This may be a sign of increased intracranial pressure.

If a doctor thinks you have a brain tumor, he or she will want to see images of your brain. You may need tests, such as:

MRI: MRIs use radio waves, magnets, and a computer to make detailed images of the brain and spinal cord. For this test, you lie still on a table as it passes through a tube-like scanner. If you are not comfortable in small spaces, you may be given a sedative before the test.

Biopsy: In a biopsy, a sample of the tumor tissue is removed and examined for type and grade.

Exam of the CSF for tumor cells and other substances.

Blood tests to measure levels of substances such as melatonin, and alpha-fetoprotein.

You may first see your primary doctor. He or she may then refer you to a doctor that specializes in brain problems. This may be a neurologist, neurosurgeon, or neuro-oncologist. Your doctor can help you understand your pathology report. The report tells the size, location, type, grade, and other information about your tumor.

Treatment and medications

The main treatments for pineal region tumours include surgery, radiotherapy and sometimes chemotherapy. Your treatment depends mainly on the type of pineal region tumour you have. It also depends on:

  • The size and position of the tumour
  • The grade
  • The symptoms you have.


Surgery is often the main treatment for pineal region tumours.

Before having surgery to remove the tumour, you might need to have a build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (hydrocephalus) drained. This relieves any pressure in the brain. When the pressure has been relieved, you may have surgery to remove your tumour. Your surgeon will explain your operation and what to expect.

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may be used after surgery, depending on the type of tumour and how much of it has been removed. Radiotherapy uses high-energy rays to destroy the tumour cells. Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to destroy the tumour cells.

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are very effective in treating some germ cell tumours, so surgery may not always be needed.

Radiotherapy may be used:

  • As the main treatment
  • As the main treatment, if surgery is not possible
  • After surgery, if the tumour cannot be completely removed
  • After surgery, to reduce the risk of the tumour coming back
  • To treat the spinal cord, if there are signs the tumour has spread to the spine
  • With chemotherapy, to treat some pineal region tumours.

A type of radiotherapy called stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) can sometimes be used to treat pineal region tumours.

Chemotherapy is often used to treat germ cell tumours. It is also sometimes used to treat other types of pineal region tumours. This may be as part of a clinical trial. Your doctor will explain whether chemotherapy might be suitable.

France president Emmanuel Macron said Russia will pay a big price if it attack Ukraine.

According to EURONEWS, it was learnt that France and Germany says it will continue dialogue with Russia.

France president Emmanuel Macron said Russia will pay a big price if it attack Ukraine.


China a bigger threat to US than Russia says Sen. Tom Cotton.

Homepage gathered that, Senator Tom Cotton stated that President Joe Biden had demonstrated appeasement and weak point over the previous 12 months

The US ought to be offering as a lot, if no more, help within the type of weapons and diplomatic and monetary backing to Taiwan because it has to Ukraine, Senator Tom Cotton (R-Arkansas) advised Fox Information on Tuesday.

China is an even bigger menace than Russia to the USA.

Taiwan is rather more necessary to the USA than is Ukraine, Cotton stated, whereas admitting he believes each Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin wish to overturn the USA as the worldwide superpower even when neither chief feels compelled to overtly coordinate or discuss these actions.

Cotton argued the US ought to be studying from what he referred to as President Joe Biden’s previous 12 months of appeasement and conciliation and weak point towards Ukraine and shore up Taiwan with equal if not higher help now with a purpose to preempt the form of disaster with Taiwan that we see taking part in out at the moment on the borders of Ukraine.

Democrats within the US Home of Representatives are reportedly working to fast-track a invoice that may bestow $500 million in army support on Ukraine, greater than doubling the quantity of army support given to the nation in 2020. 

The White Home has been warning of an impending Russian invasion of Ukraine for weeks, citing inside troop actions inside Russia as proof {that a} cross-border incursion is imminent. 

Whereas a few of these warnings had been just lately walked again, NATO and the Pentagon proceed to maneuver troops and different property nearer to Russia, purportedly anticipating such an invasion.

The Republican Occasion is much less sanguine in regards to the prospect of warfare with Russia, nevertheless, as a substitute pointing to China with whom the earlier president, Donald Trump, was engaged in an ongoing commerce warfare as the first menace to American dominance, each economically and militarily.

Current exams of what gave the impression to be hypersonic missiles have set the US opposition additional on edge concerning the potential of Chinese language aggression.


Police arrest three suspected kidnappers in Ughelli North Delta State.

According to a report made available to oneworld news, it was learnt that the Nigeria Police force have arrested three suspected kidnappers in Agbarho Community, Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State.

The operation was led by the Divisional Police Officer, DPO, CSP Samuel Ogwa.

The kidnap suspects include Godstime Rufus, Stanley Efeme and Davidson Esiso.

The suspects were arrested after their victim escaped in the process of transferring him to another vehicle along Esiso street.

The victim reported the matter to the Police, leading to the arrest of one of the suspects, Godstime Rufus.

The Delta State Police Command confirmed the report in a statement signed by the Police Public Relations Officer, DSP Bright Edafe.


Eight died in a stampede outside AFCON game in Cameroon.

According to EURONews it was gathered that no fewer than eight persons have died in a stampede outside AFCON game in Cameroon.


Arewa Consultative forum converge on collaboration with Afenifere and Ohanaeze on peaceful coexistence.

Chieftains of the Arewa Consultative Forum (ACF) have converged on Kaduna to deliberate ahead of the 2023 elections on how to collaborate with the Afenifere and Ohanaeze on peaceful coexistence

The ACF at the meeting cautioned its members to stay clear of speaking about and endorsing any candidate for the 2023 presidential election.

The Forum said that as the race to the 2023 general election begins, its members will be subjected to questions from outsiders as to which candidate the ACF will endorse.

The ACF Chairman, Audu Ogbe said at the National Executive Council (INEC) meeting on Wednesday, that members were advised that their answer to such question should always be, “ACF is not a political party to endorse any candidate.