Russian president and France president, spoke for more than an hour on Friday morning during a phone call.

According to a report, It was gathered that Russian president and France president, spoke for more than an hour on Friday morning during a call that was described by the French side as serious and respectful which highlighted fundamental differences but also a joint desire to keep talking.

The conversation enabled us to agree on the need for a de-escalation,” the aide said during a briefing with journalists.

France hosted more than eight hours of talks between Russian and Ukrainian delegations in Paris on Wednesday which were seen as a test of whether Putin wanted to lower tensions, having massed around 100,000 troops on Ukraine’s border.

President Putin expressed no offensive plans and said he wanted to continue the talks with France and our allies, the French official said on Friday, adding that the Russian leader said very clearly that he did not want confrontation.

Macron said earlier this week that Russia was behaving as a power of disequilibrium in the region but had also made clear he wanted to speak with Putin, whom he invited to France for talks during his summer holidays in 2019.

His relatively conciliatory tone has contrasted with the more strident rhetoric about the probability of a Russian invasion from France’s NATO allies the UK and the United States.

Now the ball is in Putin’s court, Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian told RTL radio Friday before the phone call between the leaders.

Senate restrict Nigerians from building on aerodromes.

It was learnt that the Senate, have, restricted Nigerians from constructing or reconstructing aerodromes.

The lawmakers made the decision while passing a bill to amend the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria Act.

Aerodrome is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither, and regardless of whether it is for public or private use.

But the passage of the bill followed the consideration of a report by the Committee on Aviation.

Chairman of the committee, Senator Smart Adeyemi, in his presentation, said the bill seeks to repeal the Federal Airports Authority Act and to enact the Federal Airports Authority Act 2021.

He said that the piece of legislation also seeks to provide for the effective management of airports in Nigeria.

According to him, “under the bill, the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN) retains its responsibilities of providing effective management, necessary services and facilities for safe, secure, orderly, expeditious and economic operation of airports and air transport in Nigeria.

“The bill also provides that subject to the prior approval of FAAN, no person is permitted to commence construction or reconstruction of an aerodrome in Nigeria.”

Adeyemi said that stakeholders at a public hearing on the bill disclosed that the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria Act has not had any major amendments since 1999 despite a lot of changes.

He explained that the amendments to the Federal Airports Authority Act was needed to create the enabling environment for FAAN to function transparently, efficiently and effectively.

Morocco government have inaugurated a covid-19 vaccine plant.

According to TVC News, oneworld learnt that the Morocco government have inaugurated a covid-19 vaccine manufacturing plant.

Russian Navy has conducted live-fire drills in the Baltic Sea.

The Russian Navy has conducted live-fire drills in the Baltic Sea in a provoked move designed to increase pressure on NATO amid escalating tensions over Ukraine.

American news outlet CNBC has reported on a newly released by Russia’s Ministry of Defence footage showing target practice drills taking place. 

CNBC’s David Shepard said, Russia continues to ramp up military forces near Ukraine.

This is a new video from today of Russian tank and artillery drills near the Ukrainian border.

Russian warships deployed to the Baltic Sea for target practice as they put it, the Baltic Sea surrounded by six NATO countries.

Russia and state media report the ships wiped out all of the aerial targets.

Even more Russian fighter jets have arrived in Belarus,’ added the American anchorman.

That’s a close Russian ally that also borders Ukraine.

Belarusian says the Russian forces are there only for joint military exercises and they will leave once they’re complete.

It comes as an international relations expert warned that Russian leader Vladimir Putin was determined to make Russia a significant power in the world.

Cambridge University lecturer Ian Shields told “Putin will send troops in – I think he’s confident that the downsides would be worth the risks.

He would see it as much as anything as a tool to continue to fracture the Western alliance.

He added: “You only have to look at Putin’s character, the pictures of him riding around on horses with no shirt on -he has a strongman vision, which is hugely positive in Russian domestic politics.

He is a cold war warrior, he still has negative feelings towards the demise of the Soviet Union,

Russia coming second in the Cold War.. he is looking to establish Russia as a significant power in the world.

All of this plays into the western society of Russia, it’s a very macho culture, they drink vodka, smoke cigarettes, they are very, very macho characters.

Russia is no stranger to being isolated, no stranger to being invaded, no stranger to hardship, Mr Shields continued. 

Putin will just use this as a way of getting together the Russian people.. we are being wronged here.

French President Emmanuel Macron call his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin.

It was learnt that, French President Emmanuel Macron call his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, in an attempt to de-escalate the conflict with Ukraine, amid Western fears that Moscow may be planning an invasion.

Macron also sees the talks as an opportunity to see where exactly both of them stand in the current situation.

Élysée sources also said that Macron wanted to emphasize once again that a Russian invasion would have serious consequences.

Western states have highly concerned that an invasion could be imminent, as 100,000 Russian troops are stationed near Ukraine’s borders.

Russia has repeatedly denied such plans.

The Ukraine conflict dates back to 2014 when a peace plan negotiated with the help of Germany and France has stalled.

On Wednesday, a meeting was held in Paris in the so-called Normandy format, including mediators from France and Germany as well as Ukraine and Russia.

However, no substantial progress was made, according to German representatives.

Chiari malformation is a congenital defective condition of the skull’s structure.


Chiari malformation is a congenital defective condition of the skull’s structure, in which cerebellum and the brain stem have penetrated into the foramen magnum, an opening at the base of the skull. Chiari is a term named after a pathologist Hans Chiari, who first described the Chiari malformation. The other terms are also used to refer Chiari malformation such as Arnold-Chiari malformation (this name usually refers specifically to Type II Chiari malformation) and hindbrain hernia.


Generally, the parts of the brain stem and cerebellum are located in the gap between the foramen magnum. In some cases, this gap in between the foramen magnum is abnormal in its size, thus the brain stem and cerebellum protruded or extended towards the top of the spinal canal through this space. This abnormal condition creates a pressure at the base of the brain and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the brain and spinal cord. Such problems affect the functions done by those parts of the brain.

Types of Chiari malformation

There are about four types of Chiari malformation as follows:

Type 1: Normally the spinal cord only passes into the foramen magnum, but in type 1 the lower part of the cerebellum (cerebellar tonsils) is extended till the foramen magnum. Type 1 is the most common form of Chiari malformation and doesn’t show any symptoms. It is usually noticed eventually when examining any other health issues during adulthood.

Type 2: It is also called as “classic” Chiari malformation or Arnold-Chiari malformation. Type 2 has severe symptoms more than type 1 and appears only during childhood period. In this type cerebellum and tissues of the brain stem protruded into the foramen magnum and also the nerve tissue between the two halves of the cerebellum is partially formed or absent. This type also associated with other conditions such as spina bifida and hydrocephalus.

Type 3: Type 3 is a very rare and serious form of Chiari malformation in which the cerebellum and the brain stem protrude through an abnormal opening at the back of the skull. Along with these protruded parts, the covering membranes of the brain and spinal cord also stick out. Symptoms usually appear during infancy and cause life-threatening effects in their futures. Infants with type 3 shows may show other neurological defects such as seizures, delay in physical and mental actions.

Type 4: Type 3 is different from other types because here the defect is with the development of the cerebellum. An underdeveloped or incompletely formed cerebellum (cerebellar hypoplasia) is located in its native place and some portions of the skull and spinal cord are exposed. This is a very rare form of Chiari malformation.

Causes and risk factors for Chiari malformation

The exact cause of CM is not known, but it tends to be developed from the birth. Some of the predicted causes are as follows.

  • Chiari malformations are generally a reason for structural defects in the skull parts and spinal canal.
  • These defects are developed when the genetic mutations occur during fetal development in its mother’s womb.
  • Malnourished maternal diet lacks nutrient supplements to the fetus, thus causing congenital malformations during the fetal development.
  • Chiari malformation also exists when the huge amount of cerebrospinal fluid is drained out as a result of injury, infection and toxic environmental exposure.
  • CM also developed due to other conditions such as a tethered spinal cord, hydrocephalus, and in rare cases due to the tumor in the brain.
  • Sometimes CM also due to the inherited mutated gene from their family members. However, the risk of passing altered genes from the family is very rare.
  • Consuming illegal drugs and alcohol during pregnancy can also pose a reason for CM.


Chiari malformations have no population studies on incidence and prevalence. From the clinical wise prevalence was estimated between 0.1 and 0.5%. But 0.77% as higher results of CM has resulted from the widespread use of MRI at a tertiary care center over a period of 3.5 years. From this 14 % were shown asymptomatic CM. The age distribution is majorly diagnosed in the late childhood period.


Many people do not have any symptoms. One of the common symptoms is a headache, especially during coughing, sneezing or straining. Other symptoms include:

  • Difficulty while swallowing or speaking
  • Scoliosis
  • Balance or hearing problems
  • Vomiting
  • Insomnia
  • Dizziness
  • Numbness and muscle weakness
  • Neck pain
  • Poor coordination of hands and fine motor skills
  • Depression
  • Tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ears)

For some people, symptoms may vary depending upon the compression of the tissue and nerves and the build-up of pressure by cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).

Children with Chiari malformation may have difficulty in swallowing, being annoyed while feeding, a weak cry, excessive drooling, arm weakness, stiff neck, delay in development, and inability to gain weight.


In some people Chiari malformation may become serious disorder and causes complication such as follows:

Hydrocephalus: The excess fluid is filled in the brain and cause heavy pressure to the brain. The shunt tube is placed to drain the fluid.

Syringomyelia: A cyst (Syrinx) or cavity is formed in the spinal column. This may lead to serious discomforts for the usual head movement activity.

Tethered cord syndrome: In this condition, your spinal cord attaches to your spine and causes your spinal cord to stretch. This can cause serious nerve and muscle damage in your lower body.

Spina bifida: It is the condition in which your spinal cord or its covering isn’t fully developed, may occur in Chiari malformation, a part of the spinal cord is exposed out which cause serious paralysis. People with Chiari malformation type II usually have a form of spina bifida called myelomeningocele.

Diagnosis and test

Some of the tests and diagnosis for Chiari malformation include:

Magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI): MRI image will provide the accurate view of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, it is good at providing and defining the extent of malformations. It can also evaluate the extent of fluid blockage and neural movement at the foramen magnum using CSF flow studies. MRI provides more information than CT scan about the back of the brain and spinal cord. It is the usual test preferred mostly for brain damages.

Computed tomography scan (CT): CT scan can be carried out to find the blockage and to define the size of the cerebral ventricles. It is useful for evaluating bony abnormalities at the bottom of the skull and cervical canal.

Swallowing study: Internal swallowing process is determined by fine any abnormalities abnormality suggestive of lower brainstem dysfunction by fluoroscopy (X-Rays).

Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAER): To examine the function of hearing apparatus and brainstorm connections, an electrical test is carried out. It can also use to determine whether the brainstorm is working properly or not.

Myelogram: An X-ray of the spinal canal following injection of a contrast material into the CSF space; can show pressure on the spinal cord or nerves due to malformations. This test is performed less frequently now.

Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP): Sensation nerves are tested electrically, which gives some information about peripheral nerve, brain function, and spinal cord.

Sleep study: During sleep time breathing, snoring, oxygenation, and seizure activity are monitored to determine the sleep apnea.

Treatment and medications

Treatment is depending on the severity of the condition. If you don’t have symptoms your doctor will recommend regular imaging examinations. If you have primary symptoms like a headache, then your doctor may recommend pain medications.

Surgery to reduce pressure:

  • Mostly Chiari malformation is treated with surgery, the main goal of the treatment is to stabilize your symptoms and to stop the changes in the anatomy of your brain
  • This surgery can reduce the cerebellum pressure on your spinal cord and It restores the normal flow of spinal fluid
  • Posterior fossa decompression is the most common surgery for Chiari malformation. A small portion of bone is removed in the back of your skull and relieving pressure by giving space to your brain

Posterior fossa decompression surgery

  • In most of the cases, the brain covering called the dura mater is opened and a patch sewn is placed to enlarge the covering and to provide space to your brain.
  • Sometime your doctor will remove a small portion of the spinal column to relieve pressure on your spinal cord and allow more space for the spinal cord
  • The technique of the surgery may vary based on the fluid-filled cavity (Syrinx) present or fluid in your brain (hydrocephalus). If you have fluid in brain, the shunt tube is used to drain the extra fluids and relieves pressure in the brain

Prevention of chiari malformation

Chiari malformation is a congenital anomaly, and no method of prevention is known.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a disorder in which excess immune system cells called Langerhans cells build up in the body.


Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a disorder in which excess immune system cells called Langerhans cells build up in the body. Langerhans cells, which help regulate the immune system, are normally found throughout the body, especially in the skin, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, liver, and bone marrow. In Langerhans cell histiocytosis, excess immature Langerhans cells usually form tumors called granulomas. Many researchers now consider Langerhans cell histiocytosis to be a form of cancer, but this classification remains controversial.

In approximately 80 percent of affected individuals, one or more granulomas develop in the bones, causing pain and swelling. The granulomas, which usually occur in the skull or the long bones of the arms or legs, may cause the bone to fracture.

Granulomas also frequently occur in the skin, appearing as blisters, reddish bumps, or rashes which can be mild to severe. The pituitary gland may also be affected; this gland is located at the base of the brain and produces hormones that control many important body functions. Without hormone supplementation, affected individuals may experience delayed or absent puberty or an inability to have children (infertility). In addition, pituitary gland damage may result in the production of excessive amounts of urine (diabetes insipidus) and dysfunction of another gland called the thyroid. Thyroid dysfunction can affect the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism), body temperature, skin and hair texture, and behavior.


The pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is unknown. It has been debated whether LCH is a reactive or neoplastic process, although the latter is now more commonly accepted. Arguments supporting the reactive nature of LCH include the occurrence of spontaneous remissions, the extensive elaboration of multiple cytokines by dendritic cells and T-cells (the so-called cytokine storm) in LCH lesions, and the good survival rate in patients without organ dysfunction. [6] Furthermore, a rigorous investigation of potential chromosomal aberrations in LCH via analysis of ploidy, karyotype, single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and array-based comparative genomic hybridization did not reveal consistent abnormalities; these findings were considered to support the idea of LCH as a reactive process.


We don’t know all the reasons why some people get LCH. About half of the people with the disorder have a faulty gene that makes the Langerhans immune cells grow out of control. That genetic mutation happens after birth, which means you usually won’t get LCH from your parents.

Researchers suspect that other things may also play a role:

  • Smoking
  • Parents who were exposed to environmental toxins, like benzene or wood dust
  • Infections as a newborn
  • Family history of thyroid disease

Risk Factors

Most adults with LCH have a history of smoking, and roughly two-third of these patients have a form of this disease that only lodges in the lung.

Other risk factors for LCH include:

  • A parent who was exposed to certain chemicals, such as benzene
  • A history of infections as a newborn
  • A family history of thyroid disease
  • Mutations in the BRAF gene

LCH-related BRAF mutations are acquired over the course of a lifetime, not inherited, and are only present in the abnormal cells. The BRAF gene provides instructions for making a protein related to control cell growth and development. When this protein becomes overactive, it may cause the Langerhans cells to grow and divide uncontrollably. Viral infections, environmental toxins, and changes in other genes may also play a role in the development of this complex disorder.

Symptoms of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) may be limited to only one part of the body, such as a bone, or it can involve many organs.  The disease may be more serious in young infants or if “risk” organs such as liver, spleen, or bone marrow are involved. When LCH affects certain bones in the skull, the patients can be at higher risk of developing diabetes insipidus and/or neurological complications.

The following symptoms may indicate disease involvement but are not necessarily diagnostic of LCH.  This disease varies greatly from patient to patient, and some but not all of these symptoms may be present.

  • Skin: Scaly, waxy rash or lesions, hair loss, diaper rash, oozing, tenderness.
  • Bones/Single or Multiple Sites (skull, bones around eyes, back bones, extremities, ribs, pelvis, feet/toes/fingernails/hands/fingers). Bone pain, lumps, headaches, fracture, limp, inability to walk, collapse of disc.
  • Bone Marrow: Low blood counts (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets/clotting cells), increased infections, easy bruising.
  • Gastrointestinal Tract (stomach/intestines/colon): Abdominal pain, yellow skin, vomiting, diarrhea, blood in stool, weight loss, bleeding from the throat, child’s growth falls below the standard expectation.
  • Liver/Spleen: Enlarged liver, swelling of abdomen, pain, abnormal liver blood tests.
  • Endocrine System (pituitary gland/diabetes insipidus, hypothalamus, thyroid gland) Excessive thirst, excessive urination, dehydration, fatigue, sweats, temperature changes, weight gain, weight loss, and short stature/growth failure, early or delayed/absent puberty.
  • Lung: Chest pain, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, collapsed lung, cough, weight loss, fatigue, coughing up blood.
  • Brain/Central Nervous System: Diabetes insipidus, headaches, dizziness, seizures, blurred vision or loss of vision, difficulty walking, abnormal protrusion of eyeballs, difficulty swallowing or speaking, behavior changes, hot flashes, temperature variations, vomiting.
  • Mouth/Jaw/Gums: Pain and swelling of face, loosening or loss of teeth, “floating” teeth, mouth ulcers, swollen or bleeding gums, swollen lymph nodes in neck.
  • Ears: Loss of hearing, discharge from ear canal, redness, cysts.
  • Eyes: Difficulty seeing, bulging of eyeballs.
  • Lymph Nodes (neck, groin, armpits): Enlargement, tenderness. If the enlargement surrounds the respiratory area, it can result in cough, dyspnea, or turning blue.
  • Ovaries: Pelvic pain, change in menstrual cycle.

What are possible complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child?

Langerhans cell histiocytosis can cause damage to tissues and organs all over the body if it’s not treated. One example is pulmonary histiocytosis. This condition damages the lungs. Damage to the body can be so severe that the condition becomes fatal. Other complications may include:

  • Pituitary gland problems
  • Growth problems. This includes delayed growth.
  • Anemia
  • Lung failure

Diagnosis and Test

Tests that examine the organs and body systems where LCH may occur are used to detect (find) and diagnose LCH. The following tests and procedures may be used to diagnose LCH or conditions caused by LCH:

Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.

Neurological exam: A series of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro exam or a neurologic exam.

Complete blood count (CBC) with differential: A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:

  • The amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.
  • The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood cells.
  • The number and type of white blood cells.
  • The number of red blood cells and platelets.

Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the body by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease.

Liver function test: A blood test to measure the blood levels of certain substances released by the liver. A high or low level of these substances can be a sign of disease in the liver.

BRAF gene testing: A laboratory test in which a sample of blood or tissue is tested for certain changes in the BRAF gene.

Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.

Water deprivation test: A test to check how much urine is made and whether it becomes concentrated when little or no water is given. This test is used to diagnose diabetes insipidus, which may be caused by LCH.

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: The removal of bone marrow and a small piece of bone by inserting a hollow needle into the hipbone. A pathologist views the bone marrow and bone under a microscope to look for signs of LCH.

The following tests may be done on the tissue that was removed:

  • Immunohistochemistry: A laboratory test that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens (markers) in a sample of a patient’s tissue. The antibodies are usually linked to an enzyme or a fluorescent dye. After the antibodies bind to a specific antigen in the tissue sample, the enzyme or dye is activated, and the antigen can then be seen under a microscope.
  • Flow cytometry: A laboratory test that measures the number of cells in a sample, the percentage of live cells in a sample, and certain characteristics of the cells, such as size, shape, and the presence of tumor (or other) markers on the cell surface.

Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones with LCH and is detected by a scanner.

X-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the body. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body. Sometimes a skeletal survey is done. This is a procedure to x-ray all the bones in the body.

CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. A substance called gadolinium may be injected into a vein. The gadolinium collects around the LCH cells so that they show up brighter in the picture. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find tumor cells in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.

Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.

Pulmonary function test (PFT): A test to see how well the lungs are working. It measures how much air the lungs can hold and how quickly air moves into and out of the lungs. It also measures how much oxygen is used and how much carbon dioxide is given off during breathing. This is also called lung function test.

Bronchoscopy: A procedure to look inside the trachea and large airways in the lung for abnormal areas. A bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth into the trachea and lungs. A bronchoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of LCH.

Endoscopy: A procedure to look at organs and tissues inside the body to check for abnormal areas in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs. An endoscope is inserted through an incision (cut) in the skin or opening in the body, such as the mouth. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue or lymph node samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of disease.

Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for LCH cells. To diagnose LCH, a biopsy of bone, skin, lymph nodes, liver, or other sites of disease may be done.

Treatments for Langerhans cell histiocytosis

The severity of LCH varies widely. For many patients, the disorder eventually resolves with appropriate treatment. When only the skin is affected, this condition may disappear on its own. However, some complications may be long-lasting, resulting in tissue and organ damage.

Adults currently receive the treatments proven effective for children, though it is not currently known whether they respond as well.

Isolated skin conditions may be treated by drugs and chemotherapy, including:

  • Topical steroids (although these creams are effective for a small number of patients)
  • Chemotherapy agents, including oral methotrexate and mercaptopurine, and intravenous chemotherapies, including vinblastine or cladribine
  • Topical application of nitrogen mustard for cutaneous LCH that is resistant to oral therapies (not used for disease involving large areas of skin)
  • Psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet radiation (PUVA)

Other forms of LCH may be treated by a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.


  • Curettage (the removal of tissue). LCH bone lesions may not need complete excision, as this only increases healing time and the risk of long-term complications.
  • Bracing or spinal fusion may be needed for unstable cervical vertebrae.

Radiation Therapy

  • May be used for bone lesions of the vertebrae or femoral neck, if they are at risk of collapse or fracture.


  • Vinblastine, a chemotherapy drug, may be combined with prednisone
  • Methotrexate, a chemotherapy drug
  • Mercaptopurine, a chemotherapy drug
  • Cladribine, a chemotherapy drug
  • Zoledronate, a drug that strengthens bones

Vemurafemib (Zelboraf) is a medicine that targets BRAF and has worked in some patients.

Can Langerhans cell histiocytosis be prevented in a child?

  • Experts don’t know what causes Langerhans cell histiocytosis. So there is no known way to prevent the condition. Having a family history of thyroid disease may increase the risk.
  • Some other factors can increase your child’s risk of developing the condition. Limit your exposure to certain chemicals, including benzene.

US government is set to deny $130 million military aid to Egypt.

The Biden administration is set to deny US$130 million of military aid to Egypt over human rights concerns, three sources familiar with the decision told Reuters.

Secretary of State Anthony Blinken said in September that the aid would be withheld if Egypt did not address specific human-rights related conditions.

Rights groups had called on the administration to block the entire US$300 million of Foreign Military Financing to Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s government. Sisi, who ousted the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013, has overseen a crackdown on dissent that has tightened in recent years.

One source said members of Congress had been briefed on the administration’s decision to withhold the aid, which accounts for 10 per cent of the US$1.3 billion that Egypt is still expected to receive from the United States this year. As of now there are no plans to withhold the rest of that aid, the source said.

US Senator Chris Murphy, a Democrat and an ally of President Joe Biden, welcomed the decision, and said Sisi had failed to meet the administration’s narrow and wholly achievable human rights conditions.

It sends the important message abroad that we will back up our commitment to human rights with action and gone are the days where dictators receive blank checks from America, Murphy said in a statement.

The State Department did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Asked about the aid in a press briefing on Thursday, State Department spokesperson Ned Price said Blinken had yet to make a determination.

We believe that continued progress when it comes to human rights would only strengthen our bilateral relationship with Egypt, Price said.

The decision comes after the administration approved the potential sale of air defense radars and C-130 Super Hercules planes to Egypt for a combined value of more than US$2.5 billion.

Price said on Thursday an approved sale was distinct from the granting of military aid, and would allow Egypt to purchase equipment that is defensive in nature to be used in peacekeeping operations.

UK government to aution 3,000 items worth $10 million next month.

From camera lenses to trucks, more than 3,000 items of outside broadcasting equipment used to cover major sports and entertainment events are headed for auction next month, with a total estimated value of $10 million.

The lots have been gathered from British outside broadcast company Arena TV, which collapsed into administration late last year, as part of a liquidation sale.

Filling up three hangars at an airfield in southern England, the cameras, outside broadcast trucks and trailers, more than 100 km of cables and other items were used to cover events like the 2020 UEFA European Football Championship, Wimbledon and the Glastonbury music festival for major British broadcasters.

The lots have a combined estimate of around 7.5 million pounds ($10 million) and are being put up for sale by firms Hickman Shearer and CA Global Partners on behalf of administrators Kroll LLP.

I’m already seeing an unbelievable number of people coming to look at the website, we have getting on for 1,000 people registered for the sale (from) Japan to Mexico, Peru to the French island of Reunion, Dan Main, EMEA director of CA Global Partners, told Reuters at a preview.

You never really see a sale on this scale (of television equipment) so we’re conservatively estimating 7.5 million (pounds) but it could be significantly more than that with the global buyer base that we’re attracting.

The auction will take place Feb. 22-24, with the trucks and trailers already on sale.