Avian influenza is also called as Bird flu. Avian influenza refers to the disease caused by infection with avian (bird) influenza (flu) Type A viruses.


Avian influenza is also called as Bird flu. Avian influenza refers to the disease caused by infection with avian (bird) influenza (flu) Type A viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Avian flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with avian flu viruses have occurred.

How Do Humans Get Bird Flu?

People catch bird flu by close contact with birds or bird droppings. Exactly what “close contact” means differs from culture to culture. People don’t catch the virus from eating fully cooked chicken or eggs. There have been a few cases where one infected person caught the bird flu virus from another person but only after close personal contact. So far, there has been no sustained human-to-human spread of H5N1.

As long as the bird flu virus doesn’t change into a human flu virus, it won’t spread far in people. But sometimes after close personal contact a person who gets bird flu does infect another person.

History of avian influenza

In the 1990s, the world’s poultry population grew 76% in developing countries and 23% in developed countries, contributing to the increased prevalence of avian influenza. Before the 1990’s, HPAI caused high mortality in poultry, but infections were sporadic and contained. Outbreaks have become more common due to the high density and frequent movement of flocks from intensive poultry production.

Influenza A/H5N1 was first isolated from a goose in China in 1996. Human infections were first reported in 1997 in Hong Kong. Since 2003, more than 700 human cases of Asian HPAI H5N1 have been reported to the WHO, primarily from 15 countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East, though over 60 countries have been affected

Epidemiology about avian influenza

The first H9N2 low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in Asia were isolated from Guangdong Province, China, in 1994 and 1996, respectively. Currently, H9 and H5 are the most prevalent AIV subtypes and can be found throughout most of the areas in China. Interestingly, the H9N2 and H5N1 AIVs are prevalent in both unvaccinated and vaccinated poultry farms, often causing sporadic outbreaks. Along with the high prevalence of H9 and H5 AIVs in poultry, novel AIVs are also emerging in China.

Causes of avian influenza

Humans can become infected and ill after coming into contact with infected birds.

The following have been linked to human illness:

  1. Touching or defeathering infected birds
  2. Touching or breathing in feces and other secretions of infected birds
  3. Preparing infected poultry for cooking
  4. Slaughtering or butchering infected poultry
  5. Handling birds for sale
  6. Attending markets selling live birds

Signs and symptoms

A person with H5N1 will develop serious symptoms. The incubation period is from 2 to 8 days, and it can take up to 17 days. This is compared with 2 to 3 days for human seasonal flu. Initial symptoms include a high fever, over 38 degrees centigrade, lower respiratory tract symptoms, and, less commonly, upper respiratory tract symptoms.

The following signs and symptoms may occur:

  1. a cough, usually dry
  2. hoarse voice
  3. a high fever, over 38 degrees centigrade
  4. a blocked or runny nose
  5. aching bones, joints, and muscles
  6. bleeding from the nose
  7. chest pain
  8. cold sweats and chills
  9. fatigue
  10. headache
  11. loss of appetite
  12. sleeping difficulties
  13. upset stomach, sometimes involving diarrhea
  14. bleeding from the gums
  15. bloody sputum

Some patients develop pneumonia and breathing difficulties. This occurs around 5 days after the first symptoms appear. The patient’s condition can deteriorate rapidly, resulting in pneumonia, multiple organ failure, and death.


The test is called influenza A/H5 (Asian lineage) virus real-time RT-PCR primer and probe set. It can offer preliminary results in only four hours. However, the test isn’t widely available. Doctor may also perform the following tests to look for the presence of the virus that causes bird flu:

  1. Ascultation (a test that detects abnormal breath sounds)
  2. White blood cell differential
  3. Nasopharyngeal culture
  4. Chest X-ray

Additional tests can be done to assess the functioning of heart, kidneys, and liver.

Treatment and prevention

  1. Treatment with antiviral medication such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) can help reduce the severity of the disease. However, the medication must be taken within 48 hours after symptoms first appear.
  2. The virus that causes the human form of the flu can develop resistance to the two most common forms of antiviral medications, amantadine and rimantadine (Flumadine). These medications shouldn’t be used to treat the disease.
  3. Unfortunately, H5N1 in humans can be a severe illness requiring hospitalization, isolation, and intensive care.

Avian flu can be prevent from the following actions:

  1. Open-air markets
  2. Contact with infected birds
  3. Undercooked poultry
  4. Vaccinations: Stay up-to-date especially with the seasonal flu and pneumococcal vaccines.
  5. Isolation: Those who are sick should stay away from public places and avoid contact with people, where possible.
  6. Coughing: Cough in to an elbow or a tissue. Carefully disposed of the tissue. If you cough into the hand and then touch some item, another person can pick up the virus from that item.
  7. Hand hygiene: Wash hands regularly with warm water and soap before and after using the bathroom, before and after handling food, and after coughing.

Amoebiasis is a condition in which your gut (intestines) becomes infected with the parasite E. histolytica.


Amoebiasis is a condition in which your gut (intestines) becomes infected with the parasite E. histolytica. Entamoebae are a group of single-celled parasites (living things that live in, or on, other living organisms) that can infect both humans and some animals. There are at least six species of entamoeba that can infect the human gut but only E. histolytica causes disease.

E. histolytica in Trophozoite form

E. histolytica is an amoeba. An amoeba is the name given to any single-celled microscopic animal with a jelly-like consistency and an irregular, constantly changing shape. Amoebae are found in water, soil and other damp environments. They move and feed by means of flowing extensions of their body, called pseudopodia. Amoebae are types of germs (protozoa). Protozoa is a more general name for microscopic, single-celled organisms. Some protozoa, including E. histolytica, are important parasites of humans.

When the parasite invades the intestines, these active trophozoites get into the muscles of the intestinal walls and consume the red blood cells within. They continue to eat away at the intestinal epithelium until oblong-shaped ulcers start to form. In very rare cases, approximately 1% of infected individuals, E. histolytica invades the other organs of the body through the bloodstream, thereby causing the formation of amoebic abscesses.

Life cycle of Amoebiasis

History of amoebiasis

The earliest records of bloody mucous diarrhea were found in Bhrigu Samhita (1000 BC). Asyrian and Babylonian texts (600 BC) also made a mention. Subsequently, division between amoebic and bacterial infection was made. The relationship between dysentery and liver involvement was noticed in 200 AD. Around 16th century, amoebiasis became worldwide due to the rapid growth of trade and settlements. Accurate description of invasive and noninvasive forms of amoebiasis was made by James Annersley in 19th century. Fredrich Losch (1875) discovered amoeba in St Petersburg (Russia). Emile Brumpt (1925) suggested existence of two types of parasites, the invasive (E. histolytica) and noninvasive (E. dispar). WHO (1997) gave clear guidelines for distinguishing both the species.


The epidemiology of amoebiasis around the world is complicated by the existence of three different forms that are morphological identical but genetically distinct and include E.histolytica which is a known pathogen, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii which are non-pathogens. This is particularly relevant to the African continent as well as many other developing countries in the world, including Latin American and Asian countries, where there is lack of specific diagnostic tools. According to some studies conducted in some African countries from 6% to 75% of the population carry the parasite.

Causes of amoebiasis

The parasite may spread:

  1. Through food or water contaminated with stools
  2. Through fertilizer made of human waste
  3. From person to person, particularly by contact with the mouth or rectal area of an infected person
  4. Food handlers may transmit the cysts while preparing or handling food.
  5. The cysts are a relatively inactive form of the parasite that can live for several months in the soil or environment where they were deposited in feces. The microscopic cysts are present in soil, fertilizer, or water that’s been contaminated with infected feces.

Risk factors of Amoebiasis

People with the greatest risk for amoebiasis include:

  1. People who have traveled to tropical locations where there’s poor sanitation
  2. Immigrants from tropical countries with poor sanitary conditions
  3. People who live in institutions with poor sanitary conditions, such as prisons
  4. Men who have sex with other men
  5. People with compromised immune systems and other health conditions
  6. Alcoholism
  7. Cancer
  8. Malnutrition
  9. Older or younger age
  10. Pregnancy
  11. Use of corticosteroid medication to suppress the immune system

Manifestations of Amoebiasis

Individuals who become symptomatic usually develop progressive diarrhoea over seven to 21 days. Symptoms range from mild diarrhoea to severe dysentery with colitis and/or extra intestinal features. Symptoms of intestinal amoebiasis include:

  1. Diarrhoea with blood and mucous
  2. Foul smelling flatus
  3. Weight loss and malnutrition
  4. Abdominal pain
  5. Intermittent fever
  6. Rectal bleeding without diarrhoea (mainly children)
  7. Abdominal cramping
  8. Diarrhea
  9. Nausea and vomiting
  10. Loss of weight
  11. Fatigue

Patients whose livers are affected by these amoebic abscesses frequently exhibit fevers and experience pain on the upper right side of their abdomen, as well as liver tenderness, and jaundice. In extreme cases, jaundice can occur in the lungs and brain, transported through the intestines’ venous system.


  1. These are secondary to severe toxemia, perforation of the bowel, toxic megacolon, rupture of the hepatic abscess into pleura, lung, peritoneum, pericardium, skin and subcutaneous tissue.
  2. Rarely, a large hepatic abscess producing obstructive jaundice can occur.
  3. Fever, leukocytosis with elevated polymorphs, rise in hepatic enzymes and serum bilirubin are the accompaniments of the complications

Exams and Test

  1. The health care provider will perform a physical exam and will be asked about your medical history, especially if an individual have traveled overseas recently.
  2. Examination of the abdomen may show liver enlargement or tenderness in the abdomen.
  3. Tests that may be ordered include:
  4. Blood test for amoebiasis
  5. Examination of the inside of the lower large bowel (sigmoidoscopy)
  6. Stool test
  7. Microscope examination of stool samples, usually with multiple samples over several days
  8. Doctor may order an ultrasound or CT scan to check for lesions on your liver.
  9. If lesions appear, your doctor may need to perform a needle aspiration to see if the liver has any abscesses.
  10. Colonoscopy may be necessary to check for the presence of the parasite in your large intestine (colon).
  11. Antibody detection at the end of 1 week of invasive amoebiasis, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are diagnostic.


It is usually advised to be treated with medication to kill the parasite. Some of the medications includes:

  1. The drug diloxanide furoate is commonly used
  2. Antibiotics such as Metronidazole and tinidazole
  3. You may be given special rehydration drinks
  4. Rehydration drinks provide a good balance of water, salts and sugar. The small amount of sugar and salt helps the water to be absorbed better from the gut (intestines) into the body
  5. If you do become severely dehydrated, you may need admission to hospital so that you can be given fluids through a vein (intravenously)
  6. Occasionally, someone who develops fulminant colitis or a hole (perforation) in their bowel may need surgery to remove part of their intestine


If you (or your child) have amoebiasis, the following are recommended to prevent the spread of infection to others:

  1. Wash your hands thoroughly after going to the toilet. Ideally, use liquid soap in warm running water, but any soap is better than none. Dry your hands properly after washing.
  2. If your child wears nappies, be especially careful to wash your hands after changing nappies and before preparing, serving, or eating food.
  3. If a potty has to be used, wear gloves when you handle it, dispose of the contents into a toilet, then wash the potty with hot water and detergent and leave it to dry.
  4. Don’t share towels and flannels.
  5. Don’t prepare or serve food for others.
  6. If clothing or bedding is soiled, first remove any stools (faeces) into the toilet. Then wash in a separate wash at as high a temperature as possible.
  7. Regularly clean with disinfectant the toilets that you use. With hot water and detergent, wipe the flush handle, toilet seat, bathroom taps, surfaces and door handles at least once a day. Keep a cloth just for cleaning the toilet (or use a disposable one each time).
  8. You should stay off work, school, college, etc, while you have amoebiasis. Your doctor will advise you when it is safe to return. Avoid contact with other people as far as possible during this time.
  9. Food handlers: if you work with food and develop diarrhoea or being sick (vomiting), you must inform your employer and immediately leave the food-handling area. If amoebiasis is confirmed, you should inform your employer and stay away from work until your doctor advises it is safe to return.

Addison’s disease occurs when the adrenal cortex is damaged.


Addison’s disease occurs when the adrenal cortex is damaged, and the adrenal glands don’t produce enough of the steroid hormones cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are triangular in shape, roughly up to three inches (7.6 cm) by one inch (2.5 cm) in size, and one gland sits on the top of each kidney. The outer part of the adrenal gland (called the cortex) makes three separate types of hormone:

  1. Glucocorticoids (especially cortisol)
  2. Mineralocorticoids (especially aldosterone)
  3. Sex steroids (or androgens)


Addison’s disease is named after Thomas Addison, the British physician who first described the condition in on the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules (1855). All of Addison’s six original patients had tuberculosis of the adrenal glands. While Addison’s six patients in 1855 all had adrenal tuberculosis, the term “Addison’s disease” does not imply an underlying disease process.

The condition was initially considered a form of anemia associated with the adrenal glands. Because little was known at the time about the adrenal glands (then called “Supra-Renal Capsules”), Addison’s monograph describing the condition was an isolated insight. As the adrenal function became better known, Addison’s monograph became known as an important medical contribution and a classic example of careful medical observation.

Epidemiology of Addison’s disease

Addison’s disease affects males and females in equal numbers. Approximately 1 in 100,000 people in United States have Addison’s disease. The overall prevalence is estimated to be between 40 and 60 people per million of the general population. Because cases of Addison’s disease may go undiagnosed, it is difficult to determine its true frequency in the general population. Addison’s disease can potentially affect individuals of any age, but usually occurs in individuals between 30-50 years of age.

Risk factors

  1. Injury of adrenal gland
  2. Autoimmune Disease
  3. Steroid Therapy
  4. Tuberculosis of adrenal glands
  5. Operation on adrenal gland
  6. Amyloid Disease
  7. Sepsis
  8. anticoagulants
  9. Use of certain medications
  10. Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  11. Primary Hypercoagulable State

Addison’s disease causes

  1. By far the most common cause of Addison’s disease is autoimmunity. This is known as autoimmune Addison’s disease. Normally the body’s immune system attacks invading viruses and bacteria to defend the body. In cases of autoimmunity, the immune system makes a mistake, attacking and destroying the adrenal cortex as if it was an infection.
  2. Rare causes of Addison’s disease include infections such as tuberculosis, removal of the adrenal glands by surgery, bleeding into the adrenal glands (for instance after abdominal injuries), cancer of the adrenal glands and genetic defects such as adrenoleukodystrophy.
  3. The pituitary gland produces hormones that affect the adrenal gland. If the pituitary gland stops working properly, this can cause secondary adrenal insufficiency.


Addison’s disease symptoms usually develop slowly, often over several months, and may include:

  1. Extreme fatigue
  2. Weight loss and decreased appetite
  3. Darkening of your skin (hyperpigmentation)
  4. Low blood pressure, even fainting
  5. Salt craving
  6. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
  7. Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting
  8. Abdominal pain
  9. Muscle or joint pains
  10. Irritability
  11. Depression
  12. Body hair loss or sexual dysfunction in women

Complications of Addison’s disease

  1. Shock
  2. Death
  3. Low Blood Pressure
  4. Decreased vascular resistance

Diagnosis and test

Your doctor may undergo some of the following tests:

Blood test: Measuring your blood levels of sodium, potassium, cortisol, and ACTH gives your doctor an initial indication of whether adrenal insufficiency may be causing your signs and symptoms. A blood test can also measure antibodies associated with autoimmune Addison’s disease.

ACTH stimulation test: This test involves measuring the level of cortisol in your blood before and after an injection of synthetic ACTH. ACTH signals your adrenal glands to produce cortisol. If your adrenal glands are damaged, the ACTH stimulation test shows that your output of cortisol in response to synthetic ACTH is limited or nonexistent.

Insulin-induced hypoglycemia test: Occasionally, doctors suggest this test if pituitary disease is a possible cause of adrenal insufficiency (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The test involves checking your blood sugar (blood glucose) and cortisol levels at various intervals after an injection of insulin. In healthy people, glucose levels fall and cortisol levels increase.

Imaging tests: Your doctor may have you undergo a computerized tomography (CT) scan of your abdomen to check the size of your adrenal glands and look for other abnormalities that may give insight to the cause of the adrenal insufficiency. Your doctor may also suggest an MRI scan of your pituitary gland if testing indicates you might have secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Treatment and medications

  1. Your treatment will depend on what is causing your condition. Your doctor may prescribe medications that regulate the adrenal gland.
  2. Following the treatment plan that your doctor creates for you is very important. Untreated Addison’s disease can lead to an Addisonian crisis.
  3. If your condition has gone untreated for too long, and has progressed to a life-threatening condition called Addisonian crisis, your physician may prescribe medication to treat that first. Addisonian crisis causes low blood pressure, high potassium in the blood, and low blood sugar levels.


  1. You may need to take a combination of glucocorticoids medications (drugs that stop inflammation) to improve your health. These medications will be taken for the rest of your life and you cannot miss a dose.
  2. Hormone replacements may be prescribed to replace hormones that your adrenal glands are not making.

Prevention of Addison’s disease

Prevention of Addison’s disease is more focused on relieving symptoms and preventing an Addisonian crisis that is triggered in highly stressful environments. Preventing this disorder may include treating underlying conditions and limiting risk factors such as autoimmune diseases.

The following risk factors may prevent Addison’s disease include:

  1. Treating fungal infections.
  2. Controlling diabetes.
  3. Identify cancer symptoms to prevent the spread of cells into adrenal glands and bloodstream.
  4. Treating bacterial infection such as tuberculosis

For those who live with Addison’s disease, reducing stress and engaging in relaxing activities may prevent severe symptoms and complications.

Unknown fire 🔥 gutted Sheik Gunmi residence.

As of press time, the source of the fire couldn’t be established but efforts are ongoing to put out the inferno.

Gumi has been known to be sympathetic to the activities of bandits in Nigeria and has often told the government not to label them as criminals but grant them amnesty.

The cleric conducts frequent visits to the bandits in their forest hideouts where he urges them to embrace peace.

However, following the federal government order which proscribed the bandits as terrorists, Gumi said he would have nothing to do with them again.

Sheikh Gumi who was responding to President Muhammadu Buhari-led government declaration of bandits as terrorists said the declaration was coming at a time the bandits were willing to negotiate.

He, however, noted that going by the recent declaration by the federal government, he will no longer engage the bandits.We do not want to push the bandits beyond what they are presently doing because it can get worse. Why are you rushing to declare them terrorists when they are willing to negotiate?”

We do not want to push the bandits beyond what they are presently doing because it can get worse. Why are you rushing to declare them terrorists when they are willing to negotiate?

Speaking further, Gumi added, “The remaining door of negotiating with them are the clerics, but the door is now closed. I will not contact them again because that would mean one is aiding terrorists.


A female beggar arrested with 500,000 naira by FCT police.

According to a report by Joe Igbokwe, a woman named Hadiza Ibrahim was arrested begging in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, but surprisingly the woman was found in possession of N500,000 and $ 100, both of which belong to the woman.

Many Nigerians have reacted to her arrest and want to know her offense. Is saving money by beggars an offense? Or is there any law that says beggars must keep their money in the banks? Many Nigerians would only be worried if she has links with criminal groups.

The truth is that many street beggars make a lot of money and that is why they resist being taken to vocational schools for rehabilitation.

Their logic is that once you confine them in vocational schools, you deny them the opportunity to get money. It’s a mistake to think that they are begging for the sake of getting food to eat.

They are fed by the government at vocational schools, but they resist being taken there.


Nigeria popular self acclaimed prophetess, popularly know as Mummy GO have criticized the Valentine’s day.

The Nigeria popular self acclaimed prophetess, popularly know as Mummy GO have criticized the Valentine’s day celebration.


Pastor E.A Adeboye have prophesied over insecurity in Nigeria.

Pastor E. A Adeboye, the General Overseer of the Redeemed Christian Church of God, has prophesied that the glory of North-East Nigeria and other parts troubled by terrorists and insurgents will be restored.

Adeboye said this in a Facebook post on Saturday, after the ‘Light Up Nigeria’ outreach in Gombe State.

The event was organised as part of activities to mark the cleric’s 80th birthday.

The Glory of the North-Eastern Part of Nigeria will be restored by God’s grace.

I use Gombe State as a point of contact: that as the light of God came down powerfully during the @reach4christ Crusade, the light of God will descend upon every troubled part of our dear Nation Nigeria, Adeboye wrote.


The International Committee of the Red Cross, (ICRC) has said that it is monitoring the security crisis in the South East on Nigeria.

The International Committee of the Red Cross, (ICRC) has said that it is monitoring the security crisis in the South East region in order to render humanitarian services to affected people.

The Communication Coordinator of ICRC Nigeria, Mr. Robin Waudo, states this on Thursday during a one-day Media Communication Session held at Golden Royal Hotel in Enugu

According to Waudo we are monitoring the situation, with a view of knowing when to extend humanitarian service to people affected by security crisis currently rocking the region.

He said that ICRC cannot predict when the humanitarian intervention would come, adding that they have assisted thousands of persons affected by armed conflicts in the North East.

According to him, the organisation has done a lot towards ensuring that those affected by the banditry and the Book Haram terrorist attacks are provided with medical assistance as well as make them stand on their feet.

The Communication Coordinator said that in 2021, the ICRC distributed assistance-related material to over 500 thousand persons worth millions of naira to people affected by armed conflict in the Northeast.

On the ICRC emblem, Waudo urged the public to respect the emblem of the Committee, especially during conflict situations, warning that attacking ICRC workers would negatively affect its humanitarian services to those who need it.

He pointed out that the engagement was to strengthen the relationship between the ICRC and the media practitioners, who he described as a critical partner in their activities.


World most expensive yatch and the owner.

World most expensive yatch and the owner.