Terrorist open fire on politicians and police on their way to Borno state.

Fighters of the Islamic State-backed faction of Boko Haram, the Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā’at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da’wah wa’l-Jihād have opened fire on the convoy carrying policemen attached to a yet-to-be-identified presidential aspirant of the ruling All Progressives Congress.

Security sources told SaharaReporters that the insurgents attacked the convoy along Maiduguri-Damaturu Road while it was travelling from Abuja for a presidential campaign in Maiduguri.

The incident reportedly happened at Goni Matari village, Kaga Local Government Area of Borno State on Sunday.

 Former Governor of Lagos State, Bola Tinubu; Former Minister of Transportation, Rotimi Amaechi and Tein T.S. Jack-Rich, all presidential aspirants of the APC were in Borno during the weekend.

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Fein challenged Malami to a debate on a national television over the legal right of the South-East Nigeria.

Bruce Fein, a United States, US, lawyer of Nnamdi Kanu, leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra, IPOB, has challenged the Nigerian Attorney General of the Federation, AGF, Abubakar Malami to a debate.

Fein challenged Malami to a debate on a national television over the legal right of the South-East to agitate for Biafra.

In a series of tweets, the US attorney said Malami would have accepted defeat if he turned down the challenge.

According to Fein: “I challenge Attorney General Malami or his designee to debate me on Nigerian television. Topic: The legal right of Biafrans to self-determination.

My opponent can use two words to every one of mine. Malami concedes defeat if he scampers away from my challenge.

Kanu is being held in the custody of the Department of State Services, DSS.

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Rubella is commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles.

Overview – Rubella

Rubella is commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles is an infection that mostly affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by the rubella virus (not the same virus that causes measles).

German measles spreads when people breathe in virus-infected fluid, such as the droplets sprayed into the air when a person with german measles sneezes or coughs, or share food or drink with someone who’s infected. It also can pass through a pregnant woman’s bloodstream to infect her unborn child.

It’s a generally mild disease in children; the primary medical danger of german measles is the infection of pregnant women because it can cause congenital rubella syndrome in developing babies.

Before a vaccine against german measles became available in 1969, german measles epidemics happened every 6-9 years, usually among kids 5 to 9 years old, along with many cases of congenital rubella. Thanks to immunization, there are far fewer cases of rubella and congenital rubella.

Most german measles infections today appear in young, non-immunized adults rather than in kids. In fact, experts estimate that 10% of young adults are currently susceptible to german measles, which could pose a danger to any children they might have someday.

Pathophysiology of Rubella

Postnatal rubella

The usual portal of entry of the rubella virus is the respiratory epithelium of the nasopharynx. The virus is transmitted via the aerosolized particles from the respiratory tract secretions of infected individuals. The virus attaches to and invades the respiratory epithelium. It then spreads hematogenously (primary viremia) to regional and distant lymphatics and replicates in the reticuloendothelial system.

This is followed by a secondary viremia that occurs 6-20 days after infection. During this viremic phase, the rubella virus can be recovered from different body sites including lymph nodes, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), conjunctival sac, breast milk, synovial fluid, and lungs. Viremia peaks just before the onset of rash and disappear shortly thereafter. An infected person begins to shed the virus from the nasopharynx 3-8 days after exposure for 6-14 days after onset of the rash.

Congenital rubella syndrome

Fetal infection occurs transplacentally during the maternal viremic phase, but the mechanisms by which the rubella virus causes fetal damage are poorly understood. The fetal defects observed in congenital rubella syndrome are likely secondary to vasculitis resulting in tissue necrosis without inflammation. Another possible mechanism is direct viral damage to infected cells. Studies have demonstrated that cells infected with german measles in the early fetal period have reduced mitotic activity. This may be the result of chromosomal breakage or due to the production of a protein that inhibits mitosis. Regardless of the mechanism, any injury affecting the fetus in the first trimester (during the phase of organogenesis) results in congenital organ defects.

Causes of Rubella

German measles is caused by a virus that is spread through the air or by close contact.

A person with german measles may spread the disease to others from 1 week before the rash begins, until 1 to 2 weeks after the rash disappears.

Because the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is given to most children, german measles is much less common now. Almost everyone who receives the vaccine has immunity to German measles. Immunity means that your body has built a defense against the rubella virus.

In some adults, the vaccine may wear off. This means they are not fully protected. Women who may become pregnant and other adults may receive a booster shot.

Children and adults who were never vaccinated against german measles may still get this infection.

Who is at risk for German measles?

Most cases of German measles occur in people who live in countries that don’t offer routine immunization against german measles.

The rubella vaccine is usually given to children when they’re between 12 and 15 months old, and then again when they’re between ages 4 and 6. This means that infants and young toddlers who haven’t yet received all vaccines have a greater risk of getting German measles.

To avoid complications during pregnancy, many women who become pregnant are given a blood test to confirm immunity to German measles. It’s important to contact your doctor immediately if you’ve never received the vaccine and think you might have been exposed to German measles.

Symptoms of Rubella

Rubella means “little red” and the disease features a red rash, “rubella” is Latin for “little red.”

Symptoms normally appear 14 to 21 days after infection.

The rash often starts on the face and moves to the trunk and limbs. After 3 to 5 days, it fades and disappears. It can be itchy.

Other symptoms include:

A stuffy or runny nose

Headache

A mild fever

Red, inflamed eyes

Nerve inflammation

Enlarged and tender lymph nodes

Aching joints

Though the infection can happen at any age, german measles rarely affects young infants or people over 40 years. A person who is infected with German measles at an older age will normally have more severe symptoms.

Complications

Up to 70% of women who get german measles may experience arthritis; this is rare in children and men. In rare cases, german measles can cause serious problems, including brain infections and bleeding problems.

The most serious complication from german measles infection is the harm it can cause a pregnant woman’s developing baby. If an unvaccinated pregnant woman gets infected with the rubella virus she can have a miscarriage, or her baby can die just after birth. Also, she can pass the virus to her developing baby who can develop serious birth defects such as:

Heart problems,

Loss of hearing and eyesight,

Intellectual disability, and

Liver or spleen damage.

Serious birth defects are more common if a woman is infected early in her pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. These severe birth defects are known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).

Complications are rare with german measles in healthy infants.  Complications can include:

Arthralgia or arthritis in adults

Thrombocytopenic purpura

Otitis media

Diagnosis and Test?

If a woman is pregnant and she may have come into contact with german measles, she should see a doctor at once.

It is best to call the doctor’s office first, as they may wish to schedule an appointment at a time when there is the least chance of passing the virus on.

If there are no symptoms, a diagnosis is made by testing a saliva or blood sample. If IgM antibodies are present, this may indicate a new german measles infection.

If IgG antibodies are present, they indicate that a german measles infection has either been present in the past or the individual has already been vaccinated.

If neither antibody is present, the individual does not carry the virus and has never been immunized.

Treatment

No treatment will shorten the course of rubella infection, and symptoms are often so mild that treatment usually isn’t necessary. However, doctors often recommend isolation from others — especially pregnant women — during the infectious period.

If you contract German measles while you’re pregnant, discuss the risks to your baby with your doctor. If you wish to continue your pregnancy, you may be given antibodies called hyperimmune globulin that can fight off the infection. This can reduce your symptoms, but doesn’t eliminate the possibility of your baby developing congenital rubella syndrome.

Support of an infant born with congenital rubella syndrome varies depending on the extent of the infant’s problems. Children with multiple complications may require early treatment from a team of specialists.

Lifestyle and home remedies

In rare instances when a child or adult is infected with German measles, simple self-care measures are required:

Rest in bed as necessary.

Take acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) to relieve discomfort from fever and aches.

Tell friends, family, and co-workers especially pregnant women about your diagnosis if they may have been exposed to the disease.

Avoid people who have conditions that cause deficient or suppressed immune systems.

Tell your child’s school or child care provider that your child has German measles.

Prevention

Exclude people with german measles from childcare, preschool, school, and work until fully recovered or for at least 4 days after the onset of the rash.

Rubella is best prevented by the measles, mumps and

Rubella (MMR) combination vaccine or the measles, mumps, German measles, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine. Most people who have two doses of a rubella-containing vaccine will be protected against German measles infection.

Vaccination after exposure will not prevent infection.

All health care and childcare staff (men and women) should be assessed for immunity to German measles and if not immune, should be immunized.

Anyone with suspected german measles should consult a doctor both to check that the diagnosis is correct and so that contacts (in particular, pregnant women) can be advised. A contact is any person who has been close enough to an infected person to be at risk of having acquired the infection from that person.

Pregnant women

In addition to the above prevention points, all pregnant women:

Should be tested for immunity to German measles prior to, or during early pregnancy. If found not to be immune, MMR vaccination is given after delivery of the baby but before discharge from the maternity unit. Rubella vaccine should not be given to a woman known to be pregnant and pregnancy should be avoided for one month after vaccination.

With suspected german measles or exposure to german measles should seek specialist obstetric advice, regardless of a history of german measles or rubella vaccination. german measles re-infection, often without symptoms, can occur in individuals who have had previous infection or vaccination, although fetal damage is very rare in these cases.

The vaccine to prevent german measles

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent german measles. And when enough people get vaccinated against German measles, the entire community is less likely to get it. So when you and your family get vaccinated, you help keep yourselves and your community healthy.

There are 2 vaccines that can prevent german measles:

The MMR vaccine protects children and adults from German measles and mumps

The MMRV vaccine protects children from german measles, measles, mumps, and chickenpox

Who needs to get the rubella vaccine?

All children need to get the vaccine — and some adults may need it, too.

Children: Children ages 1 through 6 years need to get the rubella vaccine as part of their routine vaccine schedule.

Children need 2 doses of the vaccine at the following ages:

12 through 15 months for the first dose

4 through 6 years for the second dose (or sooner as long as it’s 28 days after the first dose)

Children ages 1 through 12 years can get the MMRV vaccine, which is a combination vaccine. The MMRV vaccine protects against measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox. Your child’s doctor can recommend the vaccine that’s right for your child.

Adults: Adults may need to get the rubella vaccine if they didn’t get it as a child. In general, everyone age 18 and older born after 1956 who has not had rubella needs at least 1 dose of the rubella vaccine.

What are the side effects of the rubella vaccine?

Side effects are usually mild and go away in a few days. They may include:

  • Fever
  • Mild rash
  • Swollen glands in the cheeks or neck

Less common side effects of the vaccine include:

Pain or stiffness in the joints, usually in women (up to 1 person out of 4)

Seizures (sudden, unusual movements or behavior) from having a high fever (about 1 out of every 3,000 doses)

Temporary (short-term) low platelet count (about 1 out of every 30,000 doses)

Like any medicine, there’s a very small chance that the german measles vaccine could cause a serious reaction.

Chilblains (CHILL-blayns) are the painful inflammation of small blood vessels in your skin.

Overview – Chilblains

Chilblains (CHILL-blayns) are the painful inflammation of small blood vessels in your skin that occur in response to repeated exposure to cold but not freezing air. Also known as pernio, chilblains can cause itching, red patches, swelling and blistering on your hands and feet.

Chilblains usually clear up within one to three weeks, especially if the weather gets warmer. You may have recurrences seasonally for years. Treatment involves protecting yourself from the cold and using lotions to ease the symptoms. Chilblains don’t usually result in permanent injury. But the condition can lead to infection, which may cause severe damage if left untreated. The best approach to chilblains is to avoid developing them by limiting your exposure to cold, dressing warmly and covering exposed skin.

Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology and pathogenesis of pernio remain still largely unknown due to the rarity of the condition. However, the thinking is that there is some association with vasospasm as the primary pathophysiologic finding, particularly when the patient becomes exposed to cold, damp conditions for a prolonged period. In a small study by the Mayo Clinic, researchers exposed five patients with known pernio to ice-water immersions and analyzed the patients’ vascular response. They found that all of the patients demonstrated vasospasm when exposed to the ice water bath, potentially discovering a target for pharmacologic therapy in patients with pernio.

What causes chilblains?

Chilblains are the result of an abnormal reaction to the cold. They’re common in the UK because damp, cold weather is usually in the winter.

Some people develop chilblains that last for several months every winter.

When the skin is cold, blood vessels near its surface get narrower. If the skin is then exposed to heat, the blood vessels become wider.

If this happens too quickly, blood vessels near the surface of the skin can’t always handle the increased blood flow.

This can cause blood to leak into the surrounding tissue, which may cause the swelling and itchiness associated with chilblains.

Risk factors of Chilblains

Some people are more at risk of chilblains than others.

This includes people with:

Poor circulation

A family history of chilblains

Regular exposure to cold, damp or draughty conditions

A poor diet or low body weight

Lupus – a long-term condition that causes swelling in the body’s tissues

Raynaud’s phenomenon – a common condition that affects the blood supply to certain parts of the body, usually the fingers and toes

People who smoke are more at risk of chilblains as nicotine constricts blood vessels.

Chilblains can also occur on areas of the feet exposed to pressure, such as a bunion or a toe that’s squeezed by tight shoes.

What are the symptoms of chilblains?

Chilblains occur several hours after being exposed to the cold. You may get just one chilblain but often several develop. They may join together to form a larger swollen, red area of skin.

Chilblains are very itchy. A burning sensation is also typical. They are usually red at first but may become purple. Pain and tenderness over the chilblains often develop.

Common places for chilblains to develop are:

Fingers

Toes

Ear lobes

Nose

Cheeks

Heels

Shins

Thighs

Hips

Typically, each chilblain lasts for about seven days and then, gradually, goes away over a week or so. Some people have repeated bouts of chilblains each winter.

Complications of chilblains

If you have severe or recurring chilblains, there’s a small risk of further problems developing, such as:

Infection from blistered or scratched skin

Ulcers forming on the skin

Permanent discolouration of the skin

Scarring of the skin

It’s often possible to avoid these complications by:

Not scratching or rubbing the affected areas of skin

Not directly overheating the chilblains (by using hot water, for example)

You can also help reduce your risk of infection by cleaning any breaks in your skin with antiseptic and covering the area with an antiseptic dressing. The dressing should be changed every other day until the skin heals.

If the skin does become infected, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.

Differential Diagnosis

The primary disorder that merits consideration when diagnosing pernio is chilblain lupus erythematosus (CHLE). CHLE is a rare dermatology condition often confused with other forms of pernio or vasculitic processes. Due to the implications of familial genetic inheritance and the possible association with systemic lupus erythematosus, a specific diagnosis of chilblains lupus becomes a priority when a patient presents with pernio-like symptoms. CHLE is largely idiopathic, but familial variants are associated with several different genetic mutations, including TREX1, SAMHD1, and STING.

Treatment is often symptomatic with steroids, but literature has shown the possibility for systemic medications such as JAK inhibitors as effective treatments.  While the progression to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is low in CHLE, further workup is the recommended course due to the implications of long-term undiagnosed SLE.

Other conditions, particularly vasospastic conditions, that the clinician should consider in the differential include:

Raynaud phenomenon

Acrocyanosis

Cryoglobulinemia

Cold panniculitis

Treatment and medication

The first line of treatment for chilblains generally includes measures to keep hands and feet warm and dry, such as keeping your indoor environment warm and dry, using gloves and socks, and changing damp gloves and socks when needed.

If your chilblains don’t clear up with these home remedies, your doctor may recommend medication, including:

Nifedipine (Procardia). This type of blood pressure medication treats chilblains by helping to open up blood vessels and improve circulation. Side effects may include flushing, nausea, dizziness and swelling in the hands or feet.

A topical corticosteroid. Applying a corticosteroid cream to chilblains may help the lesions go away.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Chilblains usually clear up in one to three weeks after cold exposure. In the meantime, you can take steps to ease your signs and symptoms, including:

Rewarming affected skin gently, without massaging, rubbing or applying direct heat

Avoiding cold exposure whenever possible

Keeping your affected skin dry and warm, but away from sources of heat

Applying lotion to alleviate itching

Making sure the affected skin is cleaned with an antiseptic and gently bandaged to prevent infection

Avoiding scratching

Quitting smoking, as smoking can constrict your blood vessels and slow wound healing

Preventing chilblains

The following advice may help prevent chilblains:

Stop smoking. Nicotine causes the blood vessels to constrict (get narrower), which can make chilblains worse.

Avoid medicines that may constrict blood vessels, such as caffeine and decongestants.

Keep active. This helps improve your circulation.

Wear warm clothes and insulate your hands, feet, and legs. Wearing long johns, long boots, tights, leg warmers or long socks will help. If you get cold feet in bed, wear a pair of clean socks.

Avoid tight shoes and boots as these can restrict the circulation to toes and feet.

Moisturize your feet regularly. This stops them from drying out and the skin cracking.

In cold weather, eat at least one hot meal during the day. This will help warm your whole body.

Warm your shoes on the radiator before you put them on. Make sure damp shoes are dry before wearing them.

Warm your hands before going outdoors by soaking them in warm water for several minutes and drying them thoroughly. Wear cotton-lined waterproof gloves if necessary.

Turn up the central heating. Try to keep one room in the house warm and avoid drafts.

If you are diabetic, give yourself regular foot checks (or ask someone else to do this). Diabetics may not be able to feel their feet and could have septic chilblains without realising.

Alaba market trader’s mourns as 14 days eviction notice issued by Lagos State government.

It may be a bad news to Alaba Rago traders, but the Lagos State Government has the final say.

Also, it is clear that the government of Lagos State took this hard step because they have the interest of the people at heart.

Before now, the Lagos State Government has been negotiating with the representatives of the occupiers of the Alaba Rago over the modernization of the market.

According to Punch, The joint team, which was led by Commander, Rapid Response Squad, CSP Olayinka Egbeyemi and Chairman, Lagos State Environment and Special Offences Unit (Taskforce), Sola Jejeloye, met the occupants of the market on Thursday to update them on the new directive. They were given a 14-day vacation order.

According to Punch, this was contained in a statement titled “Alaba Rago: Lagos serves eviction notices”.

The state government now sees the market as a criminal den harbouring dangerous criminals, hence, the need for it’s modernization.

Recall that last week, several guns were recovered in the market by Ojo police. More so, drug dealers also revealed that they regularly funnel drugs through the area to other parts of the state.

Egbeyemi said that the above is the more reason why the government need to act quickly to modernize the area to create and maintain orderliness.

He added that the filthy condition of the area has been giving the government sleepless nights. Therefore, modernizing it will be in the interest of the occupiers.

He also pleaded with the occupiers to avoid reading religious and ethnic motives into the exercise as the State is a convergence point for all Nigerian, irrespective of religion, ethnicity or tribes.

Jejeloye also said that the government had the plan of demolishing the area during Ramadan, but the government was sensitive to delay the eviction to allow those who traveled to their different locations for Ramadan to return.

He warned that if the 14-day ultimatum given to them to temporarily relocate for the exercise expires, the team would not give the occupiers another chance.

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Australia send military aide worth $60.9 million to Ukraine.

The Ukrainian armed forces have been enjoying free and heavy military equipment from other nearby European countries that saw their needs after the invasion of the Russian troops.

Many European countries took part in the donation of food items, medical supplies, and military equipment which have been of great help to the forces.

Some of the military weapons were used to resist the Russians from occupying the cities.

The Ukrainian armed forces are still in need of more weapons because the Russian invaders are still occupying some parts of the country.

According to NEXTA media, Australia is planning to send more military equipment to Ukraine so that they can use it to repel the Russian offensive in Donbas.

14 M113 armored personnel carriers and 20 bushmaster armored vehicles will be sent to the Ukrainian armed forces with an additional 60 pallets of medical supplies.

According to the media, the vehicles cost the Australian government $60.9 million before it was purchased.

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Putin allegedly fires two of his commanders over failure to capture Kharkiv.

Russia has suspended senior commanders who are considered to have performed poorly during the early stages of the Ukraine invasion, according to British intelligence.

Vladimir Putin is said to have suspended two of his military leaders in relation to the failure to capture second city Kharkiv as well as the sinking of Moscow’s flagship Moskva, The Mirror UK reports.

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