Gunshot fired at large crowth in Kano state.

It was learnt that multiple gunshots have been fired at the scene of the explosion that rocked Sabongari area of Kano on Tuesday morning.

The shots were fired by security agents to disperse the restless crowd at the scene.

Earlier, some of the youths attacked the soldiers with stones but the situation was brought under control.

But while our correspondent was doing a live update at the scene, security agents fired several shots into the air to disperse the crowd.

Daily Trust gathered that while rescue efforts were going on, some hoodlums have started using the commotion to break into People’s shops and houses.

Meanwhile, the evacuation exercise is still ongoing as at the time of filing this report with four casualties already confirmed.

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Ukraine military release video footage of their forces taken pictures near Russia border.

Emphysema is a lung condition that causes shortness of breath.

What is emphysema?

Emphysema is a lung condition that causes shortness of breath. In people with this condition, the air sacs in the lungs (alveoli) are damaged. Over time, the inner walls of the air sacs weaken and rupture — creating larger air spaces instead of many small ones. This reduces the surface area of the lungs and, in turn, the amount of oxygen that reaches your bloodstream.

When you exhale, the damaged alveoli don’t work properly and old air becomes trapped, leaving no room for fresh, oxygen-rich air to enter. Most people with emphysema also have chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the tubes that carry air to your lungs (bronchial tubes), which leads to a persistent cough. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are two conditions that make up chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Treatment may slow the progression of COPD, but it can’t reverse the damage.

Types of Emphysema

Emphysema is a type of COPD, and there are different types of emphysema, depending on which part of the lungs it affects.

These are:

paraseptal emphysema

centrilobular emphysema, which affects mainly the upper lobes and is most common in people who smoke

panlobular emphysema, which affects both the paraseptal and centrilobular areas of the lungs

During diagnosis, a CT scan can show which type of emphysema is present. The type does not affect the outlook and treatment.

Pathophysiology

Emphysema is a pathologic diagnosis defined by permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles. This leads to a dramatic decline in the alveolar surface area available for gas exchange. Furthermore, loss of alveoli leads to airflow limitation by 2 mechanisms. First, loss of the alveolar walls results in a decrease in elastic recoil, which leads to airflow limitation. Second, loss of the alveolar supporting structure leads to airway narrowing, which further limits airflow.

It has 3 morphologic patterns:

Centriacinar

Panacinar

Distal acinar, or paraseptal

Centriacinar emphysema is characterized by focal destruction limited to the respiratory bronchioles and the central portions of the acini. This form of emphysema is associated with cigarette smoking and is typically most severe in the upper lobes.

Panacinar emphysema involves the entire alveolus distal to the terminal bronchiole. The panacinar type is typically most severe in the lower lung zones and generally develops in patients with homozygous alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency.

Distal acinar emphysema, or paraseptal emphysema, is the least common form and involves distal airway structures, alveolar ducts, and sacs. This form of emphysema is localized to fibrous septa or to the pleura and leads to formation of bullae (as seen in the images below). The apical bullae may cause pneumothorax. Paraseptal emphysema is not associated with airflow obstruction.

The gradual destruction of alveolar septae (shown in the image below) and of the pulmonary capillary bed in emphysema leads to a decreased ability to oxygenate blood. The body compensates with lowered cardiac output and hyperventilation.

This V/Q mismatch results in relatively limited blood flow through a fairly well oxygenated lung with normal blood gases and pressures in the lung, in contrast to the situation in chronic bronchitis. Because of low cardiac output, the rest of the body also suffers from tissue hypoxia and pulmonary cachexia. Eventually, these patients develop muscle wasting and weight loss and are identified as “pink puffers.”

Causes

The main cause is exposure to airborne irritants, which include tobacco smoke, marijuana smoke, air pollutants, and manufacturing smoke.

Very rarely, emphysema is caused by heredity, wherein a person has a shortage of a protein that guards the elastic structure in the lungs, known as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

Close relatives of people with emphysema are more likely to develop the disease themselves. This is probably because the tissue sensitivity or response to smoke and other irritants may be inherited. The role of genetics in the development of emphysema, however, remains unclear.

Abnormal airway reactivity, such as bronchial asthma, has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of emphysema.

Who is at risk for emphysema?

The risk factors include

This the main risk factor. Up to 75 percent of people who have emphysema smoke or used to smoke.

Long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as secondhand smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes and dusts from the environment or workplace.

Most people who have emphysema are at least 40 years old when their symptoms begin.

This includes alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, which is a genetic condition. Also, smokers who get emphysema are more likely to get it if they have a family history of COPD.

Symptoms of emphysema

The symptoms include:

Breathlessness with exertion, and eventually breathlessness most of the time in advanced disease

Susceptibility to chest infections

Cough with phlegm production

Fatigue

Barrel-shaped chest (from expansion of the ribcage in order to accommodate enlarged lungs)

Cyanosis (a blue tinge to the skin) due to lack of oxygen.

Complications of Emphysema

People who have emphysema are also more likely to develop:

Collapsed lung (pneumothorax). A collapsed lung can be life-threatening in people who have severe emphysema, because the function of their lungs is already so compromised. This is uncommon but serious when it occurs.

Heart problems. Emphysema can increase the pressure in the arteries that connect the heart and lungs. This can cause a condition called cor pulmonale, in which a section of the heart expands and weakens.

Large holes in the lungs (bullae). Some people with emphysema develop empty spaces in the lungs called bullae. They can be as large as half the lung. In addition to reducing the amount of space available for the lung to expand, giant bullae can increase your risk of pneumothorax.

How do doctors diagnose Emphysema?

Your chest feels tight, you’re out of breath much of the time, and you have a cough that won’t go away. Do you have emphysema? You can’t go on symptoms alone. See your doctor. They’ll do the following tests to find out for sure:

Medical History

Your doctor will talk to you about your health and any recent changes you might have noticed. If you have emphysema, you’ll probably have had shortness of breath, often over a period of months or years. You may also experience wheezing. You might have a cough that won’t go away, too.

Physical Exam

Your doctor will check your weight and blood pressure. They’ll listen to your heartbeat and keep an eye out for anything that seems strange or unusual.

If you have advanced emphysema, your doctor may notice that you have any of the following:

You have a “barrel chest” caused by larger-than-normal lungs.

You’re wheezing, having a hard time getting air out of your lungs.

Your fingertips are rounded. Doctors call this “clubbing.”

You purse your lips when you breathe, like you’re blowing a kiss.

The oxygen levels in your blood are low (hypoxemia).

The carbon dioxide levels in your blood are high (hypercarbia), because emphysema makes it hard to exhale properly.

Your lips have a blue tinge (cyanosis), another sign of low oxygen in your blood.

Malnutrition causes muscles to slowly waste away in advanced emphysema.

Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs)

For this exam, you may sit inside an enclosed booth and breathe into a tube. This will allow your doctor to measure:

How much air your lungs can hold

How fast you can blow air out of your lungs

How much air stays trapped in your lungs after you exhale

Whether you’re able to breathe better after using medicines you inhale, such as albuterol

If you have normal lungs, you’ll likely be able to empty most of the air from them in 1 second. If you have emphysema, it’ll probably take longer.

Chest X-ray and CT scan

If you have advanced emphysema, your lungs will appear to be much larger than they should be. In early stages of the disease, your chest X-ray may look normal. Your doctor can’t diagnose emphysema with an X-ray alone.

A CT scan of your chest will show if the air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs have been destroyed. These make it hard for you to breathe out like normal.

Arterial blood gas

This test measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood from an artery. It is a test often used as emphysema worsens. It is especially helpful in determining if a patient needs extra oxygen.

Pulse oximetry

This test is also known as an oxygen saturation test. Pulse oximetry is used to measure the oxygen content of the blood. This is done by attaching the monitor to a person’s finger, forehead, or earlobe.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

ECGs check heart function and are used to rule out heart disease as a cause of shortness of breath.

How is emphysema treated?

There is no cure for emphysema. Treatment aims to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease with medications, therapies, or surgeries.

If you are a smoker, the first step in treating this condition is to quit smoking, either with medications or cold turkey.

Medications

Bronchodilator Medications

Inhaled as aerosol sprays or taken orally, bronchodilator medications may help to relieve symptoms of emphysema by relaxing and opening the air passages in the lungs.

Steroids

Inhaled as an aerosol spray, steroids can help relieve symptoms of emphysema associated with asthma and bronchitis. Over time, however, inhaled steroids can cause side effects, such as weakened bones, high blood pressure, diabetes and cataracts. It is important to discuss these side effects with your doctor before using steroids.

Antibiotics

Antibiotics may be used to help fight respiratory infections common in people with emphysema, such as acute bronchitis, pneumonia and the flu.

Vaccines

Patients with emphysema should receive a flu shot annually and pneumonia shot every five to seven years to prevent infections.

Oxygen Therapy

As a patient’s disease progresses, they may find it increasingly difficult to breathe on their own and may require supplemental oxygen. Oxygen comes in various forms and may be delivered with different devices, including those you can use at home.

Surgery or Lung Transplant

Lung transplantation may be an option for some patients with emphysema. For others, lung volume reduction surgery, during which small wedges of damaged lung tissue are removed, may be recommended.

Protein Therapy

Patients with emphysema caused by an alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency may be given infusions of AAT to help slow the progression of lung damage.

Pulmonary Rehabilitation

An important part of emphysema treatment is pulmonary rehabilitation, which includes education, nutrition counseling, learning special breathing techniques, help with quitting smoking and starting an exercise regimen. Because people with it are often physically limited, they may avoid any kind of physical activity. However, regular physical activity can actually improve a patient’s health and wellbeing.

Lifestyle changes

Quitting smoking if you are a smoker. This is the most important step you can take to treat this condition.

Avoiding secondhand smoke and places where you might breathe in other lung irritants

Ask your health care provider for an eating plan that will meet your nutritional needs. Also ask about how much physical activity you can do. Physical activity can strengthen the muscles that help you breathe and improve your overall wellness.

Prevention of Emphysema

To prevent emphysema:

If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how to quit

Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke

Avoid exposure to air pollution or irritants

Wear protective gear if you are around irritants or toxins on the job

Nigeria military treathen to embark on strike if the needful is not done.

Some aggrieved personnel of the Nigerian Army have accused President Muhammadu Buhari of failing to check corruption and financial mismanagement among some top military officers while soldiers continue to cry on a daily basis.

The soldiers in an open letter to the President accused top army officers of corruption and extortion.

Copied in the letter titled “Petition Against Nigeria Army Finance Corps” are the Vice President of Nigeria, Senate President, 36 state governors, National Security Adviser, traditional rulers, the Chief of Defence Staff and the Chief of Army Staff.

The soldiers said despite their numerous complaints, nobody is saying anything about their unpaid allowances by the military finance corps.

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Putin warns that NATO present in Finland and Sweden may cause unrest.

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Clash that erupted between Igbope and Igboho communities of Oorelope local government Area claim lives.

Olumide Ojerinde, lawmaker representing Irepo/Olorunsogo/Oorelope federal constituency, has condemned the clash that erupted between Igbope and Igboho communities of Oorelope local government yesterday.

Speaking through his senior legislative aide, Abayomi Ogunnowo in a press statement, decried the unwarranted violence between both communities, describing the development as entirely condemnable.

He urged the authorities to quickly intervene and establish lasting peace.

Despite undeniable blood ties, my people in Igboho and Igbope are used to living in a manner that clearly shows that they admire each other.

Last Saturday, hostilities broke out between both communities, leading to the loss of lives and the destruction of several properties.

Ojerinde, he said, has risen against the crisis, urging both communities to embrace peace.

Suing for peace and understanding between both communities, the lawmaker who is running for second term said he has been on different engagement on the ‘future of development’ in the Federal Constituency.

He further remarked that such actions will hamper the Government development moves being lobbied for the communities.

He said, destruction of lives and properties does not define our humanity regardless of the disputes. We are a republican people by nature who resolve disputes through community meetings; not war.

Killings and destruction of properties reduces our humanity and going forward.

We should shun both as means of conflict resolution.

No part of our Federal Constituency should be allowed to be engulfed in avoidable strife at a time we should be evolving strategies to keep our economy afloat; that will be too unfortunate.

Incidentally, in a farming season, crisis like this can only be an invitation to hunger, poverty and anarchy in the coming harvesting season.

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Court resume hearing on suit filed by Yoruba Nation agitation group.

The Federal High Court, Osogbo, Osun State, will on Tuesday resume hearing into the lawsuit filed by the Ilana Omo Oodua, the umbrella body for Yoruba self-determination groups, challenging the validity of the 1999 constitution to hold an election.

The group, in an invite sent to SaharaReporters, called on media personnel and all self-determination activists for coverage and in solidarity with the group.

It, however, stated that it was strictly a peaceful solidarity walk into the courtroom with lawyers devoid of violence.

Ilana Omo Oodua had last month filed the suit against the Attorney-General of the Federation (AGF) and Minister of Justice, Abubakar Malami, and the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).

The Yoruba self-determination umbrella is seeking to stop the conduct of the forthcoming governorship elections in Ekiti and Osun states.

It argued that the 1999 constitution of Nigeria which INEC wants to use to conduct the two elections and subsequent elections in Nigeria is invalid, because no referendum was conducted when it was enacted in 1999.

The lawsuit, instituted by Prof Banji Akintoye, his Deputy, Prof Wale Adeniran, Chief Bayo Orire and 15 others, was filed on behalf of the activists by their lawyer, Tolu Babaleye, before the Federal High Courts in Ado-Ekiti and Osogbo, the capitals of the states.

It further demands a total decommissioning of the 1999 constitution of Nigeria to pave way for a referendum so that the indigenous people of Yoruba land can decide on their nationhood, first and foremost.

The Ilana Omo Oodua is demanding that Whether by virtue of the Preamble to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as Amended) which says: “WE THE PEOPLE of the Federal Republic of Nigeria HAVING firmly and solemnly resolved to live in unity and harmony as one indivisible and indissoluble sovereign Nation under God dedicated to the promotion of inter-African solidarity, world peace, international cooperation and understanding: AND TO PROVIDE for a Constitution for the purpose of promoting the good government and welfare of all persons in our country on the principle of Freedom, Equity and Justice, and for the purpose of consolidating the unity of our people do hereby make and give to ourselves the following constitution without having a Referendum which absolutely is an essential part in the process of making a Constitution, the said 1999 Constitution (as Amended) is illegal, invalid and of no effect whatsoever for failing to meet an essential requirement to be qualified as a valid Constitution.

Therefore, in the event that the above sole issue is resolved in the positive affirmation, the Claimants pray the Court for the following reliefs:

An Order of this Honourable Court stopping the holding of the scheduled Ekiti State Governorship election coming up in June 2022 from being held as there is no valid legal framework for such an exercise because the 1999 Constitution (As Amended) under which the said Governorship election is planned to be conducted is illegal, invalid and inherently defective.

Recall that in December 2021, the leader of the Ilana Omo Oodua, Prof Banji Akintoye said there would not be any governorship election in any part of Yoruba land in 2022.

This was despite preparations by the Independent National Electoral Commission to hold governorship elections in the two South-West states of Ekiti and Osun in 2022.

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Life confession by a serving soldier in Zamfara state.

It is no longer news that some members of the Nigeria military are sabotaging efforts in the fight against terrorism in the country.

While the country is praying and hoping that insecurity soon becomes a a thing of the past, some are busy dragging the country backwards because of selfish reasons. 

The latest report now is about a serving soldier that has just been arrested in Zamfara state, northern Nigeria for selling live ammunitions to bandits who operates in the state. 

According to TVC news, the suspect was arrested in Shinkafi Local Government Area of the state with the ammunitions that is worth over a million naira. 

A reliable source told TVC that the suspect confessed to the crime after he was interrogated.

He confessed that he usually sell each 2.6 special life ammunitions for one thousand naira.

He was arrested while he was on his way to deliver another one thousand pieces of ammunitions to the bandits.

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M777 Howitzer now being used against Russia invaders by Ukrainian forces.

Ukrainian armed forces have always been there for their country from the very beginning of the war.

The force has been supporting and defending its territory with the use of military equipment donated by some European countries.

Some of this equipment is a good match with the forces as they are regarded as one of the best ground soldiers in Europe.

Following the series of weapons and military assistance given to them, the forces dispersed thousands of Russian troops away from the cities.

While the weapons are used to attack and destroy the Russian force’s territory.

According to a video shared by the NEXTA media, the Ukrainian forces were making use of an M777 Howitzer to attack the invaders.

The M777 howitzer is known to be a 155mm artillery piece mostly used by ground forces.

The Ukrainian forces received the military equipment from their fellow American soldiers as part of their assistance.

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