Glandular fever is an infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV).

What is Glandular Fever?

Glandular fever is an infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). It is also called Infectious Mononucleosis and sometimes the ‘kissing disease’. It is an infectious disease that is spread by close person-to-person contact.  It causes symptoms similar to influenza (the flu) that vary in severity and can persist for several weeks or longer.

Almost anyone, at any age, can catch glandular fever. However, it most commonly occurs in teenagers and young adults. Studies suggest the infection occurs slightly more often in males than in females.

Pathophysiology

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted via intimate contact with body secretions, primarily oropharyngeal secretions and to a lesser degree through genital secretions. It infects the B cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium; after acute infection the virus has been detected in oro-pharyngeal secretions for up to 32 weeks and may persist for decades. On rare occasion, EBV is spread via blood transfusion and organ transplantation.

Epstein-Barr virus infection of B lymphocytes results in a humoral and cellular response to the virus. The humoral immune response directed against EBV structural proteins is the basis for the test used to diagnose EBV infectious mononucleosis, but the T-lymphocyte cellular response is critical in determining the clinical expression of EBV infection. Natural killer (NK) cells and predominantly CD8+ cytotoxic T cells control proliferating B lymphocytes infected with EBV.

Ineffective T-cell response may cause excessive and uncontrolled B-cell proliferation, resulting in B-lymphocyte malignancies (eg, B-cell lymphomas).

The immune response to EBV infection is fever, which occurs because of cytokine release consequent to B-lymphocyte invasion by EBV. Lymphocytosis observed in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) is caused by a proliferation of EBV-infected B lymphocytes and similar proliferation in the lymphatic tissue of the oropharynx causes pharyngitis.

What causes glandular fever?

Glandular fever is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This virus is found in the saliva of infected people and can be spread through:

kissing – glandular fever is often referred to as the “kissing disease”

exposure to coughs and sneezes

sharing eating and drinking utensils, such as cups, glasses and unwashed cutlery

EBV may be found in the saliva of someone who has had glandular fever for several months after their symptoms pass, and some people may continue to have the virus in their saliva on and off for years.

If you have EBV, it’s a good idea to take steps to avoid infecting others while you are ill, such as not kissing other people, but there’s no need no need to avoid all contact with others as the chances of passing on the infection are generally low.

Risk factors

People more likely to catch glandular fever include:

Adolescents

Those sharing food and drinking utensils with others

People in close contact with someone who has infectious mononucleosis

People with a weakened immune system

People with HIV

What are the symptoms of glandular fever?

One or more of the following symptoms commonly occur for about a week or so. Symptoms then usually gradually settle over another week.

Sore throat. Although this may be mild, your throat is usually very sore, red and swollen. Glandular fever is typically suspected when a tonsillitis is severe and lasts longer than usual. Swallowing is often painful and saliva may pool in your mouth.

Swollen glands. As your body’s immune system fights off the virus it causes the lymph glands to swell. Any lymph gland in the body can be affected. However, the glands in the neck are usually the most prominent. They can become quite large and tender.

Flu-like symptoms. Like other viral infections, glandular fever often causes a high temperature (fever), muscle aches and headaches. It can make you feel quite unwell.

Malaise. A feeling of intense tiredness often develops with glandular fever. This is often the last symptom to go.

Swelling around eyes. About 1 in 5 people with glandular fever become quite puffy and swollen around the eyes. This goes in a short time.

Spleen. This is an organ under the ribs on the left side of the tummy (abdomen). It is part of the immune system. Like the lymph glands, it swells and can sometimes be felt below the ribs if you have glandular fever. Very occasionally, it causes mild pain in the upper left abdomen.

No symptoms. Many people become infected with this virus but do not develop symptoms. This is called a subclinical infection. This is more common in children and in those aged over 40 years.

Glandular fever complications

Most people get better with no problems. But sometimes glandular fever may lead to other problems like:

Mild liver inflammation (hepatitis), which causes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)

Low levels of blood cells called platelets (thrombocytopenia)

Neurological conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome or Bell’s palsy

Diagnosis

The doctor will discuss your symptoms and will perform a physical examination. This will include an assessment of whether there is:

Fever

Redness of the throat and swelling of the tonsils

Enlargement of the lymph nodes

Enlargement of the spleen

A rash (especially on the chest).

As these symptoms are so characteristic of glandular fever they are usually sufficient to make a diagnosis.

Blood tests

Antibody tests. If there’s a need for additional confirmation, a monospot test may be done to check your blood for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. This screening test gives results within a day. But it may not detect the infection during the first week of the illness. A different antibody test requires a longer result time, but can detect the disease even within the first week of symptoms.

White blood cell count. Your doctor may use other blood tests to look for an elevated number of white blood cells (lymphocytes) or abnormal-looking lymphocytes. These blood tests won’t confirm mononucleosis, but they may suggest it as a possibility.

Treatment

There is no cure for glandular fever, and some people experience symptoms for 6 monthsTrusted Source or longer.

However, even without treatment, most people find that their symptoms go away within 2–4 weeksTrusted Source, though fatigue can last longer. In fact, studies have found that 9–22% of people continue to experience fatigue for 6 months after developing the infection.

A person can take the following steps to help the body heal:

Rest

A person with glandular fever often feels too tired and unwell to continue with their regular routine, but complete rest is key, especially in the first month after symptoms have appeared.

As the person recovers, light exercise may help them regain muscle strength.

Drink plenty of fluids

This will help prevent dehydration, especially if there is a fever.

A sore throat can make it hard to swallow, but it is important to consume enough fluids.

Pain relief medication

Pain relief medication, such as ibuprofen (Advil) and acetaminophenTrusted Source (Tylenol) are available over-the-counter and online. They may help keep any fever and pain at bay.

Aspirin is not suitableTrusted Source as it can increase the risk of bleeding. Children under 16 should also not use it due to the risk of developing Reye’s syndrome.

Gargling

Gargling with salt water or a solution from a pharmacy may help relieve a sore throat.

Steroids

If the tonsils are very inflamed or breathing is otherwise difficult, a doctor may prescribe a short course of corticosteroids.

Can glandular fever be prevented?

As with other infectious diseases, the spread of glandular fever can be reduced. People who have glandular fever, or those who come into contact with people with glandular fever, should:

Carefully wash their hands with soap and running water, especially after sneezing and coughing, and before touching other people

Avoid sharing eating and drinking containers and utensils

Avoid saliva contact with people who have, or may have, glandular fever (and if you have glandular fever, avoid saliva contact with others)

Angry Okada riders storm an Abuja Estate set two buildings ablaze.

According to Homepage news channel it was learnt that commercial motorcyclists went on rampage as they embarked on a search for a motorist who had allegedly run over two of their colleagues.

The incident occured in the Lokogoma area of Abuja on Sunday, May 29, 2022, left two build burnt.

It all started when a motorist reportedly hit the okada riders and quickly made his way into the estate for safety.

The Punch reported that the angry bikers, in their bid to capture the unknown motorist, attacked the estate and set two buildings ablaze.

Residents of the estate also told the newspaper that the mammoth crowd of motorcyclists chased the motorist after he knocked over their colleagues.

Meanwhile, it was gathered that security operatives were quickly deployed to scene to prevent a further damage to lives and properties.

Mr Adebisi Adelowo, the Estate Manager, told Punch that, Over 100 Hausa bike riders attacked our estate some hours ago. They tried to burn down the estate by putting fire to two buildings.

They pulled down our gate and started stoning people’s houses. We couldn’t stop them until the police and the army intervened.

We later learnt that they attacked our estate because two of their colleagues were knocked to death by a motorist who ran to our estate for safety as he was been chased with big stones and other dangerous weapons.

The motorist who is not even a resident of our estate ran into the estate because he noticed a police post in front of the estate.

Recall that a similar case had occurred in the Lekki area of Lagos two weeks ago when some group of motorcyclists lynched a sound engineer and set his corpse ablaze.

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Tinubu congratulates Atiku Abubakar on his victory as PDP candidate.

Bola Tinubu, Presidential aspirant under the All Progressives Congress, APC, has congratulated Atiku Abubakar over his victory at the presidential primary of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) on Saturday.

Atiku won the presidential ticket of the PDP with the highest votes, defeating Nyesom Wike, Bukola Saraki and other presidential aspirants.

Tinubu, in his message, hoped that Atiku would be his opponent if he emerged as the presidential candidate of the APC.

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Some APC aspirants protest dissatisfaction in just concluded governorship primaries in Plateau state.

Aspirants in the just-concluded All Progressives Congress (APC) governorship primaries in Plateau have protested against the emergence of Nentawe Yilwatda as the party’s candidate.

The aspirants expressed their disappointment and disapproval of the primaries in a statement signed by Danyaro Sarpiya, the ‘Forum of Plateau APC Aspirants’ secretary.

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Journalist and APC delegates scamper for safety as thugs disrupt electoral process.

APC Akure primaries.

The moment PDP delegate arrive MKO Abiola stadium Abuja for primaries voting.

Nigeria army eliminate fleeing terrorist I’m Niger and Kebbi state.

Troops Foil Attacks, Eliminate Fleeing Bandit-Terrorists in Niger, Kebbi States

Nigerian military troops have eliminated over 35 armed bandits in Dutsen Argida and Magaman Daji communities in Niger State.

The terrorists, were said to came from Birnin Gwari forest, in Kaduna State, were reported to have invaded the two communities located in Rijau Local Government Area, via Kontagora town and Kwimo village.

However, soldiers from a military base in Warari, a densely-populated town in Rijau, were swiftly mobilized, for a response operation, and succeeded in neutralizing some of the bandits.

A military intelligence officer, who was involved in the operation, told PRNigeria that troops, with the support of armed vigilantes engaged the bandit-terrorists, who invaded Dutsen Argida and Magaman Daji, in a convoy of motorcycles.

The swift intervention of troops prevented the terrorists from attacking the villagers.

We foiled their mission and killed over 25 of them. Troops also pursued some terrorists who fled and recover their motorcycles.

Meanwhile, no fewer than 10 bandit-terrorists also met their waterloo in the hands of army troops in Zuru, Kebbi State, on Saturday.

The terrorists killed in Zuru, according to reliable intelligence operatives, were those fleeing the onslaught of troops in Dutsen Argida and Magaman Daji communities of Niger State, into Kebbi.

They had escaped from Niger State via Kontagora and Ibeto town, using their motorcycles.

But luck ran out of them when a battalion of troops, acting on credible intelligence, intercepted their movements and engaged them in a heavy gun battle.

Over a dozen of them were killed, while the rest fled with gunshot injuries, one of the operatives disclosed.

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All APC presidential aspirants told to forget primaries and support Goodluck Jonathan.

The Aso Rock cabals and All Progressives Congress power brokers in the Muhammadu Buhari government have reached out to presidential aspirants contesting on the platform of the ruling party to step down and support former President Goodluck Jonathan as the consensus candidate, SaharaReporters has learnt.


The cabals, comprising some members of Buhari’s extended family and associates, are led by the president’s nephew, Mamman Daura.

They are said to have the ears of the president, as well as influence policy-making and select those who get major appointments.


SaharaReporters had recently reported how Jonathan met with Daura and other cabal members in Abuja where he was promised the automatic ticket of the APC.


The consensus method will entail President Buhari anointing him, while other aspirants will step down as it was done during the March 26 national convention of the APC, which produced Senator Abdullahi Adamu as the chairman of the party.


Multiple sources told SaharaReporters on Saturday that all other aspirants had been notified not to expect any primary election next week.
The party had on Friday postponed its special convention for presidential primary for the 2023 general elections from May 29 to June 6.


The aspirants were also informed that Jonathan had been adopted by the President.
The move has caused division among party leaders, governors and other stakeholders who felt the former President did not deserve the ticket.


“There is internal war in our party, APC as all aspirants got notification that Goodluck Jonathan is Buhari cabal’s adopted candidate, imagine the insult, a source told SaharaReporters.


All the aspirants have been notified not to expect party primary next week Friday as the cabal around Buhari have chosen Jonathan as the consensus candidate of the party.


Some of the aspirants include Bola Tinubu, a former governor of Lagos; Vice President Yemi Osinbajo and Rotimi Amaechi, a former Minister of Transportation.


Other presidential aspirants are former Minister of Niger Delta Development, Sen. Godswill Akpabio; Cross River State Governor, Prof. Ben Ayade; his Ebonyi State counterpart, Dave Umahi; Ekiti State Governor, Dr. Kayode Fayemi; ex-Minister of State for Education, Emeka Nwajiuba and former Senate President, Sen. Ken Nnamani.


Similarly, Kogi State Governor, Yahaya Bello; his Jigawa State counterpart, Mohammed Badaru Abubakar; ex-Zamfara State governor, Sen. Ahmed Yerima; former Minister of Science, Technology, and Innovation, Dr Ogbonnaya Onu; former Imo State governor, Sen. Rochas Okorocha and former Ogun state governor, Sen. Ibikunle Amosun are also not left out.


Meanwhile, SaharaReporters learnt that that most of the aspirants especially Tinubu and Amaechi have vowed to test their popularity at the primary election regardless of the decision of the Aso Rock cabal.


Jonathan was Nigeria’s vice-president between 2007 and 2010 and became the president in May 2010 following the death of President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua. He later completed the latter’s tenure.

Jonathan won the 2011 presidential election but lost his attempt to secure a second term in office in 2015.
SaharaReporters had in the past reported how the Aso Rock cabal was pressurising the former President to defect to the APC.


He was said to have surprised the Northern elite and the cabal by his disposition to the Buhari presidency despite all the dirt and campaign of calumny thrown at him and the PDP before the 2015 presidential election, which gave Buhari an unprecedented victory over an incumbent.


It was learnt that some cabal members had also been impressed that despite the Buhari government’s glaring failure, Jonathan had not openly criticised his predecessor or his administration, much unlike ex-President Olusegun Obasanjo.


For instance, former President Olusegun Obasanjo had written open letters condemning the Buhari government and also verbally berated it at any opportunity.


SaharaReporters learnt from sources that the establishment of ‘Almajiri’ schools by Jonathan to reduce a large number of out-of-school children in the North also scored the former president good points in the eyes of the northern cabal in the APC, especially with most of it now rotting away, even under a Northerner as president.


Jonathan had recently rejected the presidential form of the ruling APC purchased for him, purportedly by a group of supporters from the northern region.


Speaking through his Media Adviser, Ikechukwu Eze, the former president said it was an insult for the group to have bought him the forms without his permission.


However, sources had told SaharaReporters that claims by the former President that he did not authorise the purchase of the multi-million-naira forms are far from the truth.


Contrary to his denials, former President Goodluck Jonathan gave over N200 million to the governor of Jigawa, Mohammed Badaru, to purchase the APC nomination and expression of interest forms for him, a source privy to the arrangement had told SaharaReporters.

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