UK government under fire fort not intervening in Nnamdi Kanu rendition case.

The family of a British citizen who was allegedly taken to Nigeria in an act of extraordinary rendition has been granted a court hearing to challenge the UK government for not intervening in his case.

Nnamdi Kanu, the leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra (Ipob), a prominent separatist movement proscribed in Nigeria, was arrested in Kenya in June last year before being transported against his will to Nigeria, where he has been held ever since.

In July, the UN working group on arbitrary detention published an opinion that the father of two had been subject to extraordinary rendition and said he should be released immediately.

However, successive UK foreign secretaries, first Dominic Raab and then Liz Truss, before she became prime minister, have refused to take a view as to whether Kanu was a victim of extraordinary rendition.

The family has been granted a judicial review to challenge that refusal, arguing that its effect has been that no action has been taken to help him.

His brother, Kingsley Kanu, said: The British government is well known for its stance on human rights.

I believe it must be decisive when it comes to its decision-making about very serious violations of the human rights of British citizens abroad, especially when the facts are clear, as they are in my brother’s case, and when the UN has investigated and reached a firm conclusion that my brother was subject to extraordinary rendition. I am very happy that the court has agreed that a hearing is necessary to decide this important issue.

Kanu’s family claim he was tortured in Kenya and has been held in solitary confinement in Abuja since being transported there.

The UN working group referred the case to the special rapporteur on torture. It expressed concern that he had been denied treatment and medication for his heart condition and highlighted that solitary confinement in excess of 15 consecutive days is prohibited under the Nelson Mandela rules, international non-binding standards.

In a court filing concerning a parallel case brought by Nnamdi Kanu in Abuja, the Nigerian government denied torturing or mistreating him. It claimed that he entered Kenya unlawfully, having previously jumped bail in Nigeria, and so had no right to an extradition hearing.

In 2015, Kanu was arrested in Nigeria and charged with terrorism offences and incitement, after setting up a digital radio station, Radio Biafra, at his home in London.

Two years later he fled the country while on bail after an attack on his family home, which he claimed killed 28 members of Ipob. In January, he pleaded not guilty to terrorism charges.

The evidence available to date establishes that he has been subject to extraordinary rendition and torture or inhumane treatment, she said.

It is unacceptable for the UK government to continue to prevaricate on this issue.

We are glad that the court has now granted permission for this case to move to a final hearing.

Explaining her decision to grant a judicial review hearing, Mrs Justice Ellenbogen said: Such decisions/inaction are, in principle, reviewable and do not enter forbidden areas, including decisions affecting foreign policy.

The Foreign Office declined to comment while proceedings were active.

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Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs when carbon monoxide builds up in your bloodstream.

Description

Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs when carbon monoxide builds up in your bloodstream. When too much carbon monoxide is in the air, your body replaces the oxygen in your red blood cells with carbon monoxide. This can lead to serious tissue damage, or even death.

Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas produced by burning gasoline, wood, propane, charcoal or other fuel. Improperly ventilated appliances and engines, particularly in a tightly sealed or enclosed space, may allow carbon monoxide to accumulate to dangerous levels.

If you think you or someone, you’re with may have carbon monoxide poisoning, get into fresh air and seek emergency medical care.

Pathophysiology

CO toxicity causes impaired oxygen delivery and utilization at the cellular level. CO affects several different sites within the body but has its most profound impact on the organs (eg, brain, heart) with the highest oxygen requirement.

Cellular hypoxia from CO toxicity is caused by impedance of oxygen delivery. CO reversibly binds hemoglobin, resulting in relative functional anemia. Because it binds hemoglobin 230-270 times more avidly than oxygen, even small concentrations can result in significant levels of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO).

An ambient CO level of 100 ppm produces an HbCO of 16% at equilibration, which is enough to produce clinical symptoms. Binding of CO to hemoglobin causes an increased binding of oxygen molecules at the three other oxygen-binding sites, resulting in a leftward shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve and decreasing the availability of oxygen to the already hypoxic tissues.

CO binds to cardiac myoglobin with an even greater affinity than to hemoglobin; the resulting myocardial depression and hypotension exacerbates the tissue hypoxia. Decrease in oxygen delivery is insufficient, however, to explain the extent of the CO toxicity. Clinical status often does not correlate well with HbCO level, leading some to postulate an additional impairment of cellular respiration.

CO can produce direct cellular changes involving immunological or inflammatory damage by a variety of mechanisms, including the following:

Binding to intracellular proteins (myoglobin, cytochrome a,a 3)

Nitric oxide generation leading to peroxynitrite production

Lipid peroxidation by neutrophils

Mitochondrial oxidative stress

Apoptosis

Immune-mediated injury

Delayed inflammation

What are the causes of Carbon monoxide poisoning?

Carbon monoxide poisoning is caused by inhaling combustion fumes. When too much carbon monoxide is in the air you’re breathing, your body replaces the oxygen in your red blood cells with carbon monoxide. This prevents oxygen from reaching your tissues and organs.

Various fuel-burning appliances and engines produce carbon monoxide. The amount of carbon monoxide produced by these sources usually isn’t cause for concern. But if they’re used in a closed or partially closed space — cooking with a charcoal grill indoors, for example — the carbon monoxide can build to dangerous levels.

Smoke inhalation during a fire also can cause carbon monoxide poisoning.

Other common sources of carbon monoxide include the following:

Malfunctioning cooking appliances

Tobacco smoke

Clogged chimney

Auto exhaust or idling vehicles

Malfunctioning water heater

Malfunctioning oil, wood, gas, or coal furnaces

Malfunctioning gas clothes dryer

Wood burning fireplace, gas log burner, or any unvented space heater

Gas or fuel-burning appliances in cabins or campers, barbecue grills, pool or spa heaters, or ceiling-mounted heating units

Fires

Who is most at risk for CO poisoning?

Everyone is at risk for carbon monoxide poisoning. In winter, risks are higher because of improperly maintained heating systems or people warming up cars in garages. At highest risk are:

Unborn babies.

Infants.

Older adults. Most deaths from CO poisoning happen to adults 65 and older.

People living at high altitudes.

People with chronic heart disease, anemia or respiratory (breathing) problems.

People with already-high CO levels, such as those who smoke.

People who have CO exposure through their jobs are also at higher risk. Harmful CO levels exist in places such as boiler rooms, warehouses or petroleum refineries. Occupations with high CO levels include:

Firefighters

Forklift operators

Garage mechanics

Police officers

Taxi drivers

Tollbooth attendants

Welders

Check if you have symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide gas is colourless and does not smell, so you cannot tell if it is around you.

Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include:

Headache

Dizziness

Feeling sick or being sick

Feeling weak

Confusion

Chest and muscle pain

Shortness of breath

The symptoms may come and go. They may get worse when you spend time in an affected room or building and get better when you leave or go outside.

What are the complications of carbon monoxide poisoning?

Even minor cases of CO poisoning can cause serious complications. These may include:

Brain damage

Heart damage

Organ damage

Death

Due to the seriousness of these potential complications, it’s important to get help as soon as possible if you believe you have CO poisoning.

Diagnosis of CO Poisoning

Nonspecific symptoms or metabolic acidosis in at-risk patients

Venous carboxyhemoglobin level

Because symptoms can be vague, nonspecific, and variable, the diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is easily missed. Many cases of mild poisoning with nonspecific symptoms are mistaken for viral syndromes. Physicians must maintain a high level of suspicion. If people from the same dwelling, particularly a heated dwelling, experience nonspecific flu-like symptoms, CO exposure should be considered.

If CO poisoning is suspected, the carboxyhemoglobin level in the blood is measured with a CO-oximeter; venous samples can be used because arteriovenous differences are trivial. Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are not measured routinely. ABGs and pulse oximetry, alone or combined, are inadequate for diagnosis of CO poisoning because oxygen saturation reported in ABGs represents dissolved oxygen and is thus unaffected by carboxyhemoglobin concentration; furthermore, the pulse oximeter cannot differentiate normal hemoglobin from carboxyhemoglobin and thus provides a falsely elevated oxyhemoglobin reading. Noninvasive CO detectors have not been shown to be accurate or useful in the diagnosis of CO exposure or toxicity.

Although elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels are clear evidence of poisoning, levels may be falsely low because they decrease rapidly after CO exposure ends, particularly in patients treated with supplemental oxygen (eg, in an ambulance). Metabolic acidosis can be a clue to the diagnosis. Other tests may help evaluate specific symptoms (eg, electrocardiography for chest pain, CT, and MRI for neurologic symptoms).

How is carbon monoxide poisoning treated?

If a doctor suspects you have CO poisoning, you’ll receive treatment immediately once you’re in the hospital. Quick treatment is essential to prevent life-threatening complications. Treatment may involve:

Oxygen treatment

The best way to treat CO poisoning is to breathe in pure oxygen. This treatment increases oxygen levels in the blood and helps to remove CO from the blood. Your doctor will place an oxygen mask over your nose and mouth and ask you to inhale. If you’re unable to breathe on your own, you’ll receive oxygen through a ventilator.

Oxygen chamber

Your doctor may temporarily place you in a pressurized oxygen chamber (also known as a hyperbaric oxygen chamber). The oxygen chamber has twice the pressure of normal air. This treatment quickly increases oxygen levels in the blood and it’s typically used in severe cases of CO poisoning or to treat CO poisoning in pregnant women.

Emergency care

You should never treat CO poisoning yourself. If you believe you have CO poisoning, go outdoors immediately and call 911. Don’t drive yourself to the hospital, because you may pass out while driving.

How can I prevent CO poisoning in my home?

Install a battery-operated or battery back-up CO detector in your home. Check or replace the detector’s battery when you change the time on your clocks each spring and fall. Place your detector where it will wake you up if it alarms, such as outside your bedroom. Consider buying a detector with a digital readout. This detector can tell you the highest level of CO concentration in your home in addition to alarming. Replace your CO detector every five years.

Have your heating system, water heater, and any other gas, oil, or coal burning appliances serviced by a qualified technician every year.

Do not use portable flameless chemical heaters indoors.

If you smell an odor from your gas refrigerator have an expert service it. An odor from your gas refrigerator can mean it could be leaking CO.

When you buy gas equipment, buy only equipment carrying the seal of a national testing agency, such as Underwriters’ Laboratories.

Make sure your gas appliances are vented properly. Horizontal vent pipes for appliances, such as a water heater, should go up slightly as they go toward outdoors, as shown below. This prevents CO from leaking if the joints or pipes aren’t fitted tightly.

Have your chimney checked or cleaned every year. Chimneys can be blocked by debris. This can cause CO to build up inside your home or cabin.

Never patch a vent pipe with tape, gum, or something else. This kind of patch can make CO build up in your home, cabin, or camper.

Never use a gas range or oven for heating. Using a gas range or oven for heating can cause a build-up of CO inside your home, cabin, or camper.

Never burn charcoal indoors. Burning charcoal – red, gray, black, or white – gives off CO.

Never use a portable gas camp stove indoors. Using a gas camp stove indoors can cause CO to build up inside your home, cabin, or camper.

Never use a generator inside your home, basement, or garage or less than 20 feet from any window, door, or vent.

When using a generator, use a battery-powered or battery backup CO detector in your home.

H. influenzae, represents a group of bacteria that may cause different types of infections in infants and children.

What is Haemophilus influenzae?

Haemophilus influenzae or H. influenzae, represents a group of bacteria that may cause different types of infections in infants and children. H. influenzae most commonly causes ear, eye, or sinus infections, and pneumonia.

A more serious strain of the bacteria called H. influenzae type b has been nearly abolished in the United States due to the development of an effective vaccine, which has been available since 1988.

The more serious strain was responsible for causing many cases of meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain) and a life-threatening infection called epiglottitis (infection of the area of the throat that covers and protects the voice box and trachea during swallowing).

Both meningitis and epiglottitis can be caused by other bacteria, however. In rare cases, children may still develop H. influenzae type b infections. This can occur in a child who has not completed his or her series of immunizations or in older children who did not receive the vaccine as an infant.

Types of Haemophilus Influenzae Infections

Doctors consider some H. influenzae infections “invasive.” Invasive disease happens when the bacteria invade parts of the body that are normally free from germs. For example, H. influenzae can invade the fluid around the spine and brain, causing meningitis, or bloodstream, causing bacteremia. Invasive disease is usually serious, requiring treatment in a hospital, and can sometimes result in death.

The most common types of invasive disease caused by H. influenzae are:

Pneumonia (lung infection)

Bloodstream infection

Meningitis (swelling of the lining of the brain and spinal cord)

Epiglotittis (swelling in the throat)

Cellulitis (skin infection)

Infectious arthritis (inflammation of the joint)

influenzaecan also be a common cause of ear infections in children and bronchitis in adults.

Pathophysiology

The nomenclature (Haemophilus is Greek for “blood loving”) acknowledges the fact that H influenzae requires 2 erythrocyte factors for growth: X (hemin) and V (nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide). These factors are released following lysis of red blood cells, thereby allowing growth of this fastidious organism on chocolate agar. H influenzae consists of 8 biotypes; biotype 3 (Haemophilus aegyptius) is associated with Brazilian purpuric fever, and biotype 4 is a neonatal, maternal, and genital pathogen. Humans are the only natural hosts. NTHi strains are a common resident of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and, in some instances, of the conjunctivae and genital tract.

Transmission is by direct contact or by inhalation of respiratory tract droplets. Nasopharyngeal colonization of encapsulated H influenzae is uncommon, occurring in 2-5% of children in the prevaccine era and even less after widespread vaccination. The incubation period is not known. A larger bacterial load or the presence of a concomitant viral infection can potentiate the infection.

The colonizing bacteria invade the mucosa and enter the bloodstream. The presence of antibodies, complements, and phagocytes determines the clearance of the bacteremia. The antiphagocytic nature of the Hib capsule and the absence of the anticapsular antibody lead to increasing bacterial proliferation. When the bacterial concentration exceeds a critical level, it can disseminate to various sites, including meninges, subcutaneous tissue, joints, pleura, pericardia, and lungs.

What causes Haemophilus influenzae?

The H. influenzae bacteria live in the upper respiratory tract and are usually transmitted by close contact with an infected individual. Droplets in the air from a sneeze, cough, or close conversation can be inhaled and may also cause infection.

What are the symptoms of Haemophilus influenzae?

Haemophilus influenzae symptoms in babies and children depend on the specific disease that it causes.

Ear infection (otitis media)

Symptoms may include:

Pain

Loss of appetite

Irritability

Poor sleep

Fever

Drainage

Difficulty hearing

Bronchitis

Symptoms may include:

A frequent, mucus-producing cough

Lack of energy

Wheezing

Fever

Shortness of breath

Cellulitis

Symptoms may include:

Pain

Tenderness

Swelling

Warmth

Discoloration

Blisters

Fever and chills

Fatigue

Epiglottitis

Symptoms may include:

Severe sore throat

Fever

Raspy breathing called stridor

Difficulty swallowing

Drooling

Difficulty breathing

Pneumonia

Symptoms may include:

Fever and chills

Cough

Shortness of breath

Difficulty breathing

Sweating

Chest pain

Headache

Muscle pain

Fatigue.

Meningitis

Symptoms may include:

Fever

Headache

Stiff neck

Fatigue

Decreased appetite

Nausea and vomiting

Irritability

Confusion

Seizures

Bloodstream infection (septicemia)

Symptoms may include:

Fever and chills

Abdominal pain

Nausea and vomiting

Diarrhea

Anxiety or confusion

Fatigue

Shortness of breath

Difficulty breathing

Septic arthritis

Symptoms may include:

Fever

Joint pain

Tenderness

Swelling

Warmth

Decreased range of motion

Complications of Haemophilus influenzae infection

If your child is not immunized and contracts Hib, they could develop:

Meningitis – an infection of the membrane covering the brain (signs include fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, irritability and refusal of food)

Epiglottitis – inflammation of the flap at the top of the windpipe (epiglottis), which can block a child’s breathing (signs include severe breathing difficulties, fever, restlessness and irritability)

Pneumonia – lung inflammation (symptoms include fever, cough, chest pains and breathing problems, such as shortness of breath)

Septic arthritis – joint infection (symptoms include joint pain, swelling and reduced mobility of the joint)

Cellulitis – infection of the tissue under the skin, usually on the face.

These complications can develop quickly and, if left untreated, your child could die in a short period of time.

Diagnosis of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

Culture of a sample of blood or other body fluids

Sometimes examination of a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (obtained by spinal tap)

Chest or neck x-ray

To diagnose the infection, doctors take a sample of blood, pus, or other body fluids and send it to a laboratory to grow (culture) the bacteria. If people have symptoms of meningitis, doctors do a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) to obtain a sample of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid). Identifying the bacteria in a sample confirms the diagnosis.

After the bacteria are identified, they may be tested to see which antibiotics are effective (a process called susceptibility testing).

Treatment of Haemophilus influenzae

People diagnosed with H. influenzae disease take antibiotics to treat the infection. Depending on how serious the infection is, people with H. influenzae disease may need care in a hospital. Other treatments may include:

Breathing support

Medication to treat low blood pressure

Wound care for parts of the body with damaged skin

When H. influenzae cause milder infections, like bronchitis or ear infections, doctors may give antibiotics to prevent complications.

Prevention of Haemophilus Influenzae Infections

Hib vaccination

Hib conjugate vaccines are available for children ≥ 2 months of age and have reduced invasive infections (eg, meningitis, epiglottitis, bacteremia) by 99%. A primary series is given at age 2, 4, and 6 months or at age 2 and 4 months, depending on the vaccine product. A booster at age 12 to 15 months is indicated.

Contacts within the household may have asymptomatic H. influenzae carriage. Unimmunized or incompletely immunized household contacts <4 years of age are at risk of illness and should receive a dose of vaccine. In addition, all household members (except pregnant women) should receive prophylaxis with oral rifampin 600 mg (20 mg/kg for children ≥ 1 month;10 mg/kg for children <1 month) once a day for 4 days.

Nursery or day care contacts should receive prophylaxis if ≥ 2 cases of invasive disease occurred in 60 days. The benefit of prophylaxis if only one case occurred has not been established.

Nigeria on flame: Terrorist open fire on travelers along East- West highway.

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Private sectors to spend USD$ 8 billion to fight hunger in US.

US President Joe Biden on Wednesday (Sep 28) announced US$8 billion in new private sector spending to fight hunger, including hundreds of millions of dollars for meals, after lawmakers failed to further extend pandemic-era nutrition supports like universal school meals and increased aid to food banks.

The pledges were announced as part of a White House summit on Hunger, Nutrition and Health, the first since 1969, with participation from Biden, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack, and Health Secretary Xavier Becerra, as well as several lawmakers and New York City Mayor Eric Adams.

If a parent can’t feed their child, there’s nothing else that matters to that parent,” Biden said. “This is something we should be rallying the whole country to work on together.”

Biden aims to end US hunger and reduce diet-related diseases in a majority of Americans by 2030 and has turned to the private sector to underwrite some of the spending after Congress failed to further extend school lunch aid.

Pandemic assistance helped quell hunger rates for US families, but hunger again climbed following the expiration of child tax credit payments in January, while soaring food prices stretch family budgets.

Congress extended only through September 2022 aid that helped schools feed millions of US children over the last two years.

Contributions announced on Wednesday included a pledge by nonprofit FoodCorps to invest US$250 million for free, healthy school meals and to expand nutrition education in schools.

The Food Industry Association also promised to get members to donate 2 billion meals to food banks and other organizations next year while making it easier to use food stamp benefits online.

Wholesale food distributor Sysco will donate 200 million meals to national hunger-related charities and food banks, worth about US$400 million, over the next five years.

Senior administration officials briefing reporters declined to offer a timeline for the new aid but said details would be forthcoming.

The private sector commitments follow revelations of hundreds of millions of stolen federal dollars that were supposed to be spent on food aid during the coronavirus pandemic.

The officials said the administration would work closely with the donors to ensure compliance.

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Russians fleeing to Mongolia after Vladimir Putin mobilization order.

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Norway and Poland move to cut gas dependency on Russia.

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Ukrainians forced to vote on gunpoint in Putin’s Referenda.

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US call on it citizens to move out of Russia ASAP.

The United States Embassy in Russia has issued a new security alert for its citizens, who have been asked to leave the country “immediately” despite the few existing commercial flights due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

In a statement, the diplomatic legation has warned that “commercial flights are currently extremely limited, so sometimes there are none available. However, it has confirmed that land routes are still open.

If you want to leave Russia, you must make the necessary preparations as soon as possible.

The United States Embassy is very limited in offering assistance to Americans and the conditions could be increasingly limited, he insisted.

Likewise, he has indicated that the Russian government could begin to deny dual nationality to Americans and access to consular assistance to prevent their departure from the country after announcing the partial mobilization.

US citizens should not travel to Russia and those who reside in the country or are on Russian territory must leave it immediately, the Embassy stressed in a statement confirming that the authorities will offer all relevant information on the possibility to access neighboring countries from Russia.

In this sense, they have reminded their citizens that “freedom of expression and the right to peaceful assembly are not guaranteed in Russia for which they have urged “avoid protests and take photographs of the security forces within the framework of said events.

Russian authorities have already arrested Russian citizens who have participated in demonstrations, she said.

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